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Energy Storage

DOE OE Stationary Energy Storage Patent Applications - PNNL

Issued:

Application Number Publication Number Title/Date/Abstract
14/815037 20150380757 A1 Redox Flow Battery based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Issued: Dec 31, 2015
Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains CI ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42– and CI ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain CI ions or a mixture of SO42– and CT ions.
14/294,391 20150349369 A1 High-Energy-Density, Nonaqueous, Redox Flow Batteries Having Iodine-based Species
Issued: Dec 3, 2015
Abstract: Nonadueous redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a cation of the metal (Mn+) as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half cell. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I-based species. The I-based species can be selected from the group consisting of I- anions, I2, anions of Ix (x>3), or combinations thereof. Two different ones of the I-based species compose a second redox active couple in the second half cell.
14/089,499 20150147673 A1 High-Energy-Density, Aqueous, Metal-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries
Issued: May 28, 2015
Abstract: Improved metal-based redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a divalent cation of the metal (M2+ as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half-cell. For example, the metal can be Zn. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I-, anions of Ix (for x>3), or both in an aqueous solution, wherein the IT and the anions of I, (for x>3) compose an active redox couple in a second half-cell.
14/156,135 2014/0127337 A1 Apparatuses for making Cathodes for High-Temperature, Rechargeable Batteries
Issued: May 8, 2014
Abstract: The approaches and apparatuses for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to betteraccommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.
13/948,857 2014/0023903 A1 Hybrid Energy Storage Devices having Sodium
Issued: Jan 23, 2014
Abstract: Sodium energy storage devices employing aspects of both ZEBRA batteries and traditional Na-S batteries can perform better than either battery alone. The hybrid energy storage devices described herein can include a sodium anode, a molten sodium salt catholyte, and a positive electrode that has active species containing sulfur. Additional active species can include a transition metal source and NaCl. As a product of the energy discharge process, Na2Sx forms in which x is less than three.
13/912,516 2013/0273459 A1 Ionic Conductive Chromophores and Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries
Issued: Oct 17, 2013
Abstract: Ionic conductive chromophores can be used as the positive electrolytes for high-energy density, nonaqueous redox flow battery (NRFB) systems. The nonaqueous nature of the NRFB systems allow for high operation voltage (compared to aqueous systems). Furthermore, the structure odifications to chromophores described herein improve the solubility of the resultant ionic conductive chromophores, thereby allow ing them to be used in flow cell configurations.
13/668,604 20140127542 A1 Composite Separators and Redox Flow Batteries Based on Porous Separators
Issued: May 8, 2014
Abstract: Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.
13/752,936 20130196224 A1 Intermediate Temperature Sodium Metal-Halide Energy Storage Devices
Issued: Aug 1, 2013
Abstract: Sodium metal-halide energy storage devices utilizing a substituting salt in its secondary electrolyte can operate at temperatures lower than conventional ZEBRA batteries while maintaining desirable performance and lifetime characteristics. According to one example, a sodium metal-halide energy storage device operates at a temperature less than or equal to 200°C. and has a liquid secondary electrolyte having MxNa1-yAlCl4-yHy, wherein M is a metal cation of a substituting salt, H is an anion of the substituting salt, y is a mole fraction of substituted Na and Cl, and x is a ratio of y over r, where r is the oxidation state of M. The melting temperature of the substituting salt is less than that of NaCl.
13/776,262 20140242471 A1 Metallization Pattern on Solid Electrolyte or Porous Support of Sodium Battery Process
Issued: Aug 28, 2014
Abstract: A new battery configuration and process are detailed. The battery cell includes a solid electrolyte configured with an engineered metallization layer that distributes sodium across the surface of the electrolyte extending the active area of the cathode in contact with the anode during operation. The metallization layer enhances performance, efficiency, and capacity of sodium batteries at intermediate temperatures at or below about 200°C.
13/246,444 20120077068 A1 Redox Flow Batteries Having Multiple Electroactive Elements
Issued: Mar 29, 2012
Abstract: Introducing multiple redox reactions with a suitable voltage range can improve the energy density of redox flow battery (RFB) systems. One example includes RFB systems utilizing multiple redox pairs in the positive half cell, the negative half cell, or in both. Such RFB systems can have a negative electrolyte, a positive electrolyte, and a membrane between the negative electrolyte and the positive electrolyte, in which at least two electrochemically active elements exist in the negative electrolyte, the positive electrolyte, or both.
13/246,375 20120088133 A1 Planar High Density Sodium Battery
Issued: Apr 12, 2012
Abstract: A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.
13/432,166 20130260204 A1 Energy Storage Systems Having an Electrode Comprising LixSy
Issued: Oct 3, 2013
Abstract: Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes LixSy as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising LixSy. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.
13/246,375 20120088133 A1 Planar high density sodium battery
Issued: Sep 27, 2011
Abstract: A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

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