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Energy Materials Group

Energy Storage

DOE OE Stationary Energy Storage Patents - PNNL

Issued:

9,236,620 Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators
Issued: Jan 12, 2016
Abstract: Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-ex-change membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.
9,214,695 Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries
Issued: Dec 15, 2015
Abstract: RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equi-potential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.
9,130,218 Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds
Issued: Sept 8, 2015
Abstract: Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interestdue to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.
9,123,931 Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Issued: Sept 1, 2015
Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains C1- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and C1- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain C1- ions or a mixture of SO42- and C-1 ions. *(CIP of US 8,628,880 issued Jan 14, 2014)
9,077,011 Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Issued: Jul 7, 2015
Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains C1- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and C1- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain C1- ions or a mixture of SO42- and C-1 ions. *(CIP of US 8,628,880 issued Jan 14, 2014)
9,023,529 Nanomaterials for sodium-ion batteries
Issued: May 5, 2015
Abstract: A crystalline nanowire and method of making a crystalline nanowire are disclosed. The method includes dissolving a first nitrate salt and a second nitrate salt in an acrylic acid aqueous solution. An initiator is added to the solution, which is then heated to form polyacrylatyes. The polyacrylates are dried and calcined. The nanowires show high reversible capacity, enhanced cycleability, and promising rate capability for a battery or capacitor.
8,771,856 Fe-V redox flow batteries
Issued: Jul 8, 2014
Abstract: A redox flow battery having a supporting solution that includes Cl anions is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in the supporting solution, a catholyte having Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the supporting solution, and a membrane separating the anolyte and the catholyte. The anolyte and catholyte can have V cations and Fe cations, respectively, or the anolyte and catholyte can each contain both V and Fe cations in a mixture. Furthermore, the supporting solution can contain a mixture of SO4 2− and Cl ¯ anions.
8,728,174 Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries
Issued: May 20, 2014
Abstract: The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.
8,628,880 Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride
Issued: Jan 14, 2014
Abstract: Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains C1- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO42- and C1- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V2+ and V3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V4+ and V5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain C1- ions or a mixture of SO42- and C-1 ions.
8,609,270 Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries
Issued: Dec 17,2013
Abstract: Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.
8,450,014 Lithium-ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes
Issued: May 28, 2013
Abstract: Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

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