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Energy Materials Group

Vish Viswanathan

Vish Viswanathan

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Viswanathan has over 15 years experience in energy storage and fuel cell systems R&D. Energy storage work includes state of health (SOH) determination, battery sizing, electrode design to optimize power vs. energy, safety analysis, and design/development of Li-Ion, Na-S and redox flow batteries for stationary use. He is responsible for battery selection, cost estimation and sizing of energy storage systems for Transportation and Stationary applications.

Research Interests

  • Energy storage and fuel cell systems research and development.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, 1993
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering, 1982

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Balducci PJ, MJE Alam, VV Viswanathan, D Wu, AJ Crawford, K Mongird, MR Weimar, A Somani, and K Whitener. 2017. The Salem Smart Power Center: An Assessment of Battery Performance and Economic PotentialPNNL-26858, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.  doi:10.2172/1406263
  • Zhang F, M Wei, VV Viswanathan, B Swart, Y Shao, G Wu, and C Zhou. 2017. "3D Printing Technologies for Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications." Nano Energy 40:418-431.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.08.037


  • Conover DR, AJ Crawford, JC Fuller, SNG Gourisetti, VV Viswanathan, S Ferreira, D Schoenwald, and D Rosewater. 2016. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems PNNL-22010 Rev. 2, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Crawford AJ, EC Thomsen, DM Reed, DE Stephenson, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and VV Viswanathan. 2016. "Development and Validation of Chemistry Agnostic Flow Battery Cost Performance Model and Application to Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems." International Journal of Energy Research doi:10.1002/er.3526
  • Li X, P Yan, MH Engelhard, AJ Crawford, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, J Liu, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27:664-672.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030
  • Park SK, Y Shao, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2016. "Electrochemical study of highly durable cathode with Pt supported on ITO-CNT composite for proton exchange membrane fuel cells." Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 42:81-86.  doi:10.1016/j.jiec.2016.07.039


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, VV Viswanathan, KD Meinhardt, MH Engelhard, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application." Advanced Energy Materials 5(12):Article No.1500357.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201570069
  • Crawford AJ, VV Viswanathan, DE Stephenson, W Wang, EC Thomsen, DM Reed, B Li, PJ Balducci, MCW Kintner-Meyer, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model." Journal of Power Sources 293:388-399.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.05.066
  • Lawder MT, VV Viswanathan, and VR Subramanian. 2015. "Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids." Journal of Power Sources 279:645-655.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.015
  • Viswanathan VV, and MCW Kintner-Meyer. 2015. "Repurposing of Batteries from Electric Vehicles." Chapter 15 in Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles Technologies for Electric Road and Off-Road Vehicles, vol. 80, ed. B. Scrosati, J. Garche and W. Tillmetz, pp. 389-415.  Woodhead Publishing, WALTHAM, MA. 


  • Chalamala BR, T Soundappan, GR Fisher, MA Anstey, VV Viswanathan, and ML Perry. 2014. "Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective." Proceedings of the IEEE 102(6):976-999.  doi:10.1109/jproc.2014.2320317
  • Conover DR, AJ Crawford, VV Viswanathan, S Ferreira, and D Schoenwald. 2014. Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage SystemsPNNL-22010 Rev. 1, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Conover DR, VV Viswanathan, and AJ Crawford. 2014. Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems Integrated with MicrogridsPNNL-23390, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Viswanathan VV, AJ Crawford, DE Stephenson, S Kim, W Wang, B Li, GW Coffey, EC Thomsen, GL Graff, PJ Balducci, MCW Kintner-Meyer, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247:1040-1051.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023


  • Wang W, D Choi, and Z Yang. 2013. "Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 44A(1 Supplement):21-25.  doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4
  • Liu J, J Zhang, Z Yang, JP Lemmon, CH Imhoff, GL Graff, L Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, VL Sprenkle, X Li, Y Shao, and B Schwenzer. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):929-946.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690


  • Kintner-Meyer MCW, PJ Balducci, WG Colella, MA Elizondo, C Jin, TB Nguyen, VV Viswanathan, and Y Zhang. 2012. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECCPNNL-21388, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Park SK, Y Shao, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2012. "Non-Kinetic Losses Caused by Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cells." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 37(10):8451-8458.  doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.02.097
  • Stephenson DE, S Kim, F Chen, EC Thomsen, VV Viswanathan, W Wang, and VL Sprenkle. 2012. "Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 159(12):A1993-A2000.  doi:10.1149/2.052212jes


  • Xu W, K Xu, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, JS Hardy, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2011. "Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(22):9631-9639.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.06.099
  • Xu W, VV Viswanathan, D Wang, SA Towne, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(8):3894-3899. 
  • Kintner-Meyer MCW, C Jin, PJ Balducci, MA Elizondo, X Guo, TB Nguyen, FK Tuffner, and VV Viswanathan. 2011. "Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)." In 2011 IEEE PES Power Systems Conference & Exhibition (PSCE), March 20-23, 2011, Phoenix, Arizona.  IEEE, Piscataway, NJ.  doi:10.1109/PSCE.2011.5772548
  • Kou R, Y Shao, D Mei, Z Nie, D Wang, CM Wang, VV Viswanathan, SK Park, IA Aksay, Y Lin, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2011. "Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points." Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(8):2541-2547.  doi:10.1021/ja107719u
  • Park SK, Y Shao, R Kou, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, PC Rieke, J Liu, Y Lin, and Y Wang. 2011. "Polarization Losses under Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Supported Pt Catalyst in PEM Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 158(3):B297-302.  doi:10.1149/1.3530843
  • Park SK, Y Shao, H Wan, PC Rieke, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, LV Saraf, J Liu, Y Lin, and Y Wang. 2011. "Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells." Electrochemistry Communications 13(3):258-261.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.12.028
  • Park SK, Y Shao, H Wan, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, PC Rieke, J Liu, and Y Wang. 2011. "Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115(45):22633-22639.  doi:10.1021/jp2068599


  • Shao Y, S Zhang, R Kou, X Wang, CM Wang, S Dai, VV Viswanathan, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2010. "Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction." Journal of Power Sources 195(7 SP ISS):1805-1811. 
  • Choi D, D Wang, IT Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, VV Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10(8):2799-2805.  doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Kintner-Meyer MCW, PJ Balducci, C Jin, TB Nguyen, MA Elizondo, VV Viswanathan, X Guo, and FK Tuffner. 2010. Energy Storage for Power Systems Applications: A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)PNNL-19300, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Viswanathan VV, and MCW Kintner-Meyer. 2010. "Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 60(7):2963-2970.  doi:10.1109/TVT.2011.2160378
  • Viswanathan VV, D Choi, D Wang, W Xu, SA Towne, RE Williford, J Zhang, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2010. "Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management." Journal of Power Sources 195(11):3720-3729.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.11.103


  • Choi D, D Wang, VV Viswanathan, IT Bae, W Wang, Z Nie, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, Z Yang, and TQ Duong. 2009. "Li-Ion Batteries from LiFePO4 Cathode and Anatase/Graphene Composite Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Electrochemistry Communications 12(3):378-381.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.12.039
  • Kou R, Y Shao, D Wang, MH Engelhard, JH Kwak, J Wang, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, Y Lin, Y Wang, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2009. "Enhanced Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts on Functionalized Graphene Sheets for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction ." Electrochemistry Communications 11(5):954-957. 
  • Lu N, MR Weimar, YV Makarov, J Ma, and VV Viswanathan. 2009. The Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System ??? Battery Storage EvaluationPNNL-18679, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Makarov YV, B Yang, JG DeSteese, P Nyeng, CH Miller, J Ma, S Lu, VV Viswanathan, DJ Hammerstrom, B McManus, J Pease, C Loutan, and GR RosenBlum. 2009. "Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas." In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems, October 14-15, 2009, Bremen, Germany, ed. U Betancourt and T Ackermann.  Energynautics GmbH, Langen, Germany. 


  • Shao Y, R Kou, J Wang, JH Kwak, VV Viswanathan, Y Wang, J Liu, and Y Lin. 2008. "Fast test for the durability of PEM fuel cell catalysts." In Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 8. ECS Transactions, vol. 16, no. 2, ed. T. Fuller, et al, pp. 361-366.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ.  doi:10.1149/1.2981870
  • Shao Y, R Kou, J Wang, VV Viswanathan, JH Kwak, J Liu, Y Wang, and Y Lin. 2008. "The influence of the electrochemical stressing (potential step and potential-static holding) on the degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts." Journal of Power Sources 185(1):280-286.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.07.008
  • Wang D, D Choi, Z Yang, VV Viswanathan, Z Nie, CM Wang, Y Song, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2008. "Synthesis and Li-ion Insertion Properties of Highly Crystalline Mesoporous Rutile TiO2." Chemistry of Materials 20(10):3435-3442. 


  • Towne SA, VV Viswanathan, J Holbery, and PC Rieke. 2007. "Fabrication of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell MEAs Utilizing Inkjet Print Technology." Journal of Power Sources 171 (2):575-584.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.07.017



  • Holladay JD, and VV Viswanathan. 2005. "Microscale Fuel Cells." In Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing, vol. 3, ed. S Lee, pp. 1663-1672.  Taylor and Francis, New York. 


  • Yantasee W, Y Lin, XS Li, GE Fryxell, TS Zemanian, and VV Viswanathan. 2003. "Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensor Based on Mesoporous Silica Thin-film Functionalized with Thiol-Terminated Monolayer." Analyst 128(7):899-904. 


  • Singh P, LR Pederson, SP Simner, JW Stevenson, and VV Viswanathan. 2001. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems." In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC 2001): Energy Technologies Beyond Traditional Boundaries, vol. 2, ed. S Somasundaram, pp. 953-958.  American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY. 


  • Liang L, MK Shi, VV Viswanathan, LM Peurrung, and JS Young. 2000. "Temperature-Sensitive Polypropylene Membranes Prepared by Plasma Polymerization ." Journal of Membrane Science 177 (1-2)(AUG 30 2000):97-108. 
  • Rassat SD, CW Stewart, BE Wells, WL Kuhn, ZI Antoniak, JM Cuta, KP Recknagle, G Terrones, VV Viswanathan, JH Sukamto, and DP Mendoza. 2000. Dynamics of Crust Dissolution and Gas Release in Tank 241-SY-101PNNL-13112, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

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