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Energy Materials Group

Olga Marina

Olga Marina

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Marina is widely recognized for her technical contributions relating to the solid oxide fuel cell advanced electrode and interconnect development and understanding of the degradation mechanisms. She joined PNNL in 1999 after holding research positions at Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Russia, University of Patras, Greece, and Risø National Laboratory, Denmark. Dr. Marina’s interdisciplinary research is at the forefront of materials chemistry and electrocatalysis focusing on the development of innovative materials for solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, electrolyzers, and ceramic membranes relative to energy generation and storage and CO2 capture and conversion. She has published over 60 peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers, 2 book chapters, and holds 6 U.S. and foreign patents. From 2003, she serves as an adjunct faculty at Washington State University.

Research Interests

  • Advanced materials for fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, electrolyzers, and separation membranes
  • Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis
  • Electrochemical upgrading of fuels
  • Fuel purification and fuel processing
  • Metal and alloy corrosion
  • Radiation-induced corrosion in nuclear reactor materials
  • Nanoscale effects in ion conductance in solid electrolytes

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. in Chemistry, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • B.S. and M.S. in Chemistry (Diploma), Novosibirsk State University

PNNL Patents

Selected Patents

2003

    O.A. Marina and C.F. Habeger, Method and apparatus for selectively removing oxygen using a non-catalytic electrode in an electrochemical cell, US 6,565,737, May 20, 2003.

PNNL Publications

2016

  • Yoon K., and O.A. Marina. 2016. "Highly Stable Dual-Phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.8Co0.2O3 - Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Ceramic Composite Membrane for Oxygen Separation." Journal of Membrane Science 499. PNNL-SA-108229. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.10.064

2015

  • Jolly S., H. Ghezel-Ayagh, C. Willman, D. Patel, M. DiNitto, O.A. Marina, and L.R. Pederson, et al. 2015. "Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams." ECS Transactions 65, no. 1:115-127. PNNL-SA-113318.

2014

  • Ghezel-Ayagh H., S. Jolly, M. DiNitto, J. Hunt, D. Patel, W.A. Steen, and C.F. Richardson, et al. 2014. "Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology for CO2 Capture and Power Generation." ECS Transactions 56, no. 1:29-36. PNNL-SA-114896. doi:10.1149/05601.0029ecst

2013

  • Chick L.A., O.A. Marina, C.A. Coyle, and E.C. Thomsen. 2013. "Effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell running on steam reformate of kerosene." Journal of Power Sources 236. PNNL-SA-90279. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.136
  • Ghezel-Ayagh H., S. Jolly, D. Patel, J. Hunt, W.A. Steen, C.F. Richardson, and O.A. Marina. 2013. "A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology." ECS Transactions 51, no. 1:265-272. PNNL-SA-93049.

2012

  • Jolly S., H. Ghezel-Ayagh, J. Hunt, D. Patel, W.A. Steen, C.F. Richardson, and O.A. Marina. 2012. "Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation." In AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings, October 28 - November 2, 2012, Pittsburgh, PA. New York, New York:American Institute of Chemical Engineers. PNNL-SA-91795.
  • Marina O.A., and L.R. Pederson. 2012. "High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel." In Antimony: Characteristics, Compounds and Applications, edited by M. Razeghi, Ed. 175-200. Hauppauge, New York:Nova Science Publishers, INC. PNNL-SA-79561.

2011

  • Iqbal G., H. Guo, B.S. Kang, and O.A. Marina. 2011. "Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects." International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 8, no. 1:13-22. PNNL-SA-66410. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7402.2009.02415.x
  • Liu W.N., X. Sun, O.A. Marina, L.R. Pederson, and M.A. Khaleel. 2011. "EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs." In Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Nuclear Technology II: Ceramic Transactions, edited by SK Sundaram, T Ohji, K Fox and E Hoffmann, 227, 87-100. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PNNL-SA-75214.
  • Marina O.A., C.A. Coyle, M.H. Engelhard, and L.R. Pederson. 2011. "Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 158, no. 4:B424-B429. PNNL-SA-76341.
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, C.A. Coyle, E.C. Thomsen, and D.J. Edwards. 2011. "Polarization-Induced Interfacial Reactions between Nickel and Selenium in Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes and Comparison with Sulfur Poisoning." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 158, no. 1:b36-b43. PNNL-SA-74342.
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, C.A. Coyle, E.C. Thomsen, P. Nachimuthu, and D.J. Edwards. 2011. "Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 11:4911-4922. PNNL-SA-75755. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.02.027
  • Yoon K.J., C.A. Coyle, and O.A. Marina. 2011. "Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Electrochemistry Communications 13, no. 12:1400-1403. PNNL-SA-78708. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2011.08.025
  • Yoon K.J., J.W. Stevenson, and O.A. Marina. 2011. "Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFCs." In 2011 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report. 129-133. Washington, District Of Columbia:Department of Energy. PNNL-SA-80677.
  • Yoon K.J., J.W. Stevenson, and O.A. Marina. 2011. "Effect of Nickel Substitution on Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties, and Dimensional Stability of Calcium-Doped Yttrium Chromite." Solid State Ionics 193, no. 1:60 - 65. PNNL-SA-72853. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2011.04.008
  • Yoon K.J., J.W. Stevenson, and O.A. Marina. 2011. "High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 20:8531-8538. PNNL-SA-80273. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.06.089

2010

  • Liu W.N., X. Sun, L.R. Pederson, O.A. Marina, and M.A. Khaleel. 2010. "Effect of Nickel-Phosphorus Interactions on Structural Integrity of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 21:7140-7145. PNNL-SA-72312. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.06.015
  • Liu W.N., X. Sun, O.A. Marina, L.R. Pederson, and M.A. Khaleel. 2010. "EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCS." In Ceramic Transactions. Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Nuclear Technology II - Materials Science and Technology 2010 Conference and Exhibition, (MS&T 2010), October 17-21, 2010, Houston, Texas, 227, 81-100. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PNNL-SA-76430.
  • Marina O.A., C.A. Coyle, E.C. Thomsen, D.J. Edwards, G.W. Coffey, and L.R. Pederson. 2010. "Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Phosphorus." Solid State Ionics 181, no. 8-10:430-440. PNNL-SA-67342.
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, C.A. Coyle, D.J. Edwards, Y.S. Chou, and C.N. Cramer. 2010. "Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 2:636-643. PNNL-SA-73045. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.081
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, E.C. Thomsen, C.A. Coyle, and K.J. Yoon. 2010. "Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 20 SP ISS:7033-7037. PNNL-SA-72205.
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, E.C. Thomsen, D.J. Edwards, C.A. Coyle, and C.N. Cramer. 2010. "SOFC Ohmic Resistance Reduction by HCl-Induced Removal of Manganese at the Anode/Electrolyte Interface." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13, no. 6:B63-B67. PNNL-SA-71023. doi:10.1149/1.3380668
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, R. Gemmen, K. Gerdes, H. Finklea, and I.B. Celik. 2010. "Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities." ECS Transactions 26, no. 1:363-370. PNNL-SA-70946. doi:10.1149/1.3429009
  • Yoon K.J., C.N. Cramer, E.C. Thomsen, C.A. Coyle, G.W. Coffey, and O.A. Marina. 2010. "Calcium- and Cobalt-doped Yttrium Chromites as an Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157, no. 6:B856-B861. PNNL-SA-69520.
  • Yoon K.J., C.N. Cramer, J.W. Stevenson, and O.A. Marina. 2010. "Advanced Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Electrical and Thermal Properties of Calcium- and Nickel-Doped Yttrium Chromites." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 22 SP ISS:7587-7593. PNNL-SA-72751.
  • Yoon K.J., C.N. Cramer, J.W. Stevenson, and O.A. Marina. 2010. "Improvement of Sintering, Thermal Behavior, and Electrical Properties of Calcium- and Transition Metal-Doped Yttrium Chromite." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13, no. 9:B101-B105. PNNL-SA-71765. doi:10.1149/1.3456525
  • Yoon K.J., J.W. Stevenson, and O.A. Marina. 2010. "Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC." In Proceedings of the 11th Annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop, July 27-29, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Abstract No. 3. Morgantown, West Virginia:US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. PNNL-19640.

2009

  • Coyle C.A., O.A. Marina, E.C. Thomsen, D.J. Edwards, C.N. Cramer, G.W. Coffey, and L.R. Pederson. 2009. "Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic." Journal of Power Sources 193, no. 2:730-738. PNNL-SA-65571. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.04.042
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, C.A. Coyle, E.C. Thomsen, and G.W. Coffey. 2009. "Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas." ECS Transactions 25, no. 2:2125-2130. PNNL-SA-67224. doi:10.1149/1.3205760
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, R. Gemmen, K. Gerdes, H. Finklea, and I.B. Celik. 2009. "Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities." ECS Transactions 26, no. 1:363-370. PNNL-SA-67821. doi:10.1149/1.3429009
  • Thevuthasan S., L.V. Saraf, O.A. Marina, C.M. Wang, V. Shutthanandan, and P.E. Burrows. 2009. "Nanoscale Effects on Oxygen Ion Conductance in Oxide Electrolytes." In Handbook of Electrochemical Nanotechnology, edited by Y Lin, HS Nalwa. 219-233. Stevenson Ranch, California:American Scientific Publishers. PNNL-SA-65632.
  • Thevuthasan S., Z. Yu, S.N. Kuchibhatla, L.V. Saraf, O.A. Marina, V. Shutthanandan, and P. Nachimuthu, et al. 2009. "Oxygen Ion Conductance in Epitaxially Grown Thin Film Electrolytes." In Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV: 32nd International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites Proceedings. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, edited by P Singh, NP Bansal, T Ohji and A Wereszczak, 29, 229-240. Westerville, Ohio:American Ceramic Society. PNNL-SA-67352.
  • Thomsen E.C., G.W. Coffey, L.R. Pederson, and O.A. Marina. 2009. "Performance of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite Electrodes at High Pressure." Journal of Power Sources 191, no. 2:217-224. PNNL-SA-62574.

2008

  • Bera D., S.N. Kuchibhatla, S. Azad, L.V. Saraf, C.M. Wang, V. Shutthanandan, and P. Nachimuthu, et al. 2008. "Growth and characterization of highly oriented gadolinia-doped ceria (111) thin films on zirconia (111)/sapphire (0001) substrates." Thin Solid Films 516, no. 18:6088-6094. PNNL-SA-54370. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.11.007
  • Marina O.A., G.W. Coffey, C.A. Coyle, C.D. Nguyen, E.C. Thomsen, and L.R. Pederson. 2008. Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Contaminants. PNNL-17745. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Yu Z., S.N. Kuchibhatla, L.V. Saraf, O.A. Marina, C.M. Wang, M.H. Engelhard, and V. Shutthanandan, et al. 2008. "Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by Oxygen-plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 11, no. 5:B76-B78. PNNL-SA-58775. doi:10.1149/1.2890122
  • Yu Z., S.N. Kuchibhatla, M.H. Engelhard, V. Shutthanandan, C.M. Wang, P. Nachimuthu, and O.A. Marina, et al. 2008. "Growth and structure of epitaxial Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy." Journal of Crystal Growth 310, no. 2008:2450-2456. PNNL-SA-57527.

2007

  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, D.J. Edwards, C.A. Coyle, J.W. Templeton, M.H. Engelhard, and Z. Zhu. 2007. "Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation." ECS Transactions 11, no. 33:63-70. PNNL-SA-58325.
  • Marina O.A., L.R. Pederson, M.C. Williams, G.W. Coffey, K.D. Meinhardt, C.D. Nguyen, and E.C. Thomsen. 2007. "Electrode Performance in Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 154, no. 5:B452-B459. PNNL-SA-50946.

2005

  • Azad S., O.A. Marina, C.M. Wang, L.V. Saraf, V. Shutthanandan, D.E. McCready, and A. El-Azab, et al. 2005. "Nanoscale Effects on Ion Conductance of Layer-by-Layer Structures of Gadolinia-doped Ceria and Zirconia." Applied Physics Letters 86, no. 13:131906-131909. PNNL-SA-42727.
  • Azad S., S. Thevuthasan, V. Shutthanandan, C.M. Wang, D.E. Mccready, L.V. Saraf, and O.A. Marina, et al. 2005. "Growth and Characterization of Single-Crystal Multilayer Nanostructures for Fast Ion Conduction." In Nanotechnology and the Environmental: Applications and Implications. ACS Symposium Series 890, edited by B Karn, et al, 133-141. Washington, Dc:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-38440.
  • Coffey G.W., J.S. Hardy, O.A. Marina, L.R. Pederson, P.C. Rieke, and E.C. Thomsen. 2005. "Copper Doped Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite for Reduced Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Fourteenth International Conference on Solid State Ionics, Jun 22-27 2003, Monterey, CA., USA. Published in Solid State Ionics, 175, 73-78. Amsterdam:Elsevier. PNNL-SA-44931.
  • Radhakrishnan R., A.V. Virkar, S.C. Singhal, G.C. Dunham, and O.A. Marina. 2005. "Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Miniaturized Series-Connected Potentiometric Oxygen Sensor." Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical 105, no. 2:312-321. PNNL-SA-40552.
  • Saraf L.V., C.M. Wang, V. Shutthanandan, Y. Zhang, O.A. Marina, D.R. Baer, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2005. "Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films." Journal of Materials Research 20, no. 5:1295-1299. PNNL-SA-42711.
  • Saraf L.V., D.W. Matson, V. Shutthanandan, C.M. Wang, O.A. Marina, and S. Thevuthasan. 2005. "Ceria Incorporation into YSZ Columnar Nanostructures." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 8, no. 10:A525-A527. PNNL-SA-44254.
  • Stevenson J.W., S.P. Simner, M.D. Anderson, O.A. Marina, and A. Mueller. 2005. "SECA Core Technology Program - PNNL: Cell Materials Development." In SECA Workshop Proceedings: 6th Annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance. Morgantown, West Virginia:National Energy Technology Laboratory. PNNL-SA-45182.

2004

  • Coffey G.W., J.S. Hardy, O.A. Marina, L.R. Pederson, P.C. Rieke, and E.C. Thomsen. 2004. "Copper Doped Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite for Reduced Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Solid State Ionics 175, no. 1-4:73-78. PNNL-SA-46526. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2004.09.015
  • Marina O.A., and L.R. Pederson. 2004. "High Temperature Electrolysis of Water in a "Reversible" Solid Oxide Fuel Cell." In Proceedings of the 6th European Solid Oxide Fuel cell Forum, edited by M Mogensen, 1, 388-393. Oberrohrdorf:European Fuel Cell Forum. PNNL-SA-41811.
  • Marina O.A., G.W. Coffey, L.R. Pederson, P.C. Rieke, E.C. Thomsen, and M.C. Williams. 2004. "ELECTRODE DEVELOPMENT FOR REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS." In 2004 Joint International Meeting, Fifth International Symposium on Ionic and Mixed Conducting Ceramics, 368-381. Pennington, New Jersey:Electrochemical Society. PNNL-SA-42319.
  • Marina O.A., J.W. Stevenson, and L.R. Pederson. 2004. "Sulfur-Tolerant Ceramic Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." In Fuel Cell Seminar 2004: Markets and Commercialization, 174. Washington Dc:Fuel Cell Seminar Headquarters. PNNL-SA-42318.
  • Marina O.A., S. Primdahl, and M. Mogensen. 2004. "Hydrogen and Methane Oxidation on a Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Electrode Deposited on a YSZ Electrolyte." In Fifth International Symposium on Ionic and Mixed Conducting Ceramics, edited by TA Ramanarayanan, PV2004-25, 38-54. Pennington, New Jersey:Electrochemical Society. PNNL-SA-50714.
  • Radhakrishnan R., A.V. Virkar, S.C. Singhal, G.C. Dunham, and O.A. Marina. 2004. "Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Miniaturized Series-Connected Potentiometric Oxygen Sensor." Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical 105. PNNL-SA-46406. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2004.06.014
  • Saraf L.V., V. Shutthanandan, S. Thevuthasan, C.M. Wang, K.T. Koch, J.D. Andreasen, and O.A. Marina, et al. 2004. "Oxygen Diffusivity and Defect Transport in Pure and Yb Doped Nano-crystalline Ceria." In Continuous Nanophase and Nanostructured Materials Symposium held December 1-5, 2003, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., Materials Research Society symposia proceedings, edited by S. Komarneni, J.C. Parker, and J. Watkins, 788, 115-120. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-40109.

2003

  • Marina O.A., and J.W. Stevenson. 2003. "Electrical and Thermal Properties of Strontium Titanate-Based Compounds." In Solid State Ionic Devices III: Proceedings of the International Symposium, edited by Wachsman, ED., et al, 2002-26, 91-100. Pennington, New Jersey:Electrochemical Society, Inc. PNNL-SA-37463.
  • Marina O.A., M.S. Walker, and J.W. Stevenson. 2003. "Development of Ceramic Composites as SOFC Anodes." In 2003 FUEL CELL SEMINAR, 340-343. Miami Beach, Florida:Fuel Cell Seminar. PNNL-SA-39569.
  • Saraf L.V., V. Shutthanandan, C.M. Wang, Y. Zhang, O.A. Marina, and S. Thevuthasan. 2003. "Oxygen Diffusion in Nanocrystalline CeO2." In IEEE-NANO 2003 : Proceedings : 2003 3rd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology : 12-14 August, 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA /, 2, 477-479. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-39051.
  • Stevenson J.W., S. Baskaran, L.A. Chick, Y.S. Chou, J.E. Deibler, M.A. Khaleel, and O.A. Marina, et al. 2003. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VIII (SOFC VIII). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, edited by S.C. Singhal; M Kokiya, 2003-07, 31-42. Pennington, New Jersey:The Electrochemical Society, Inc. PNNL-SA-36986.

2002

  • Coffey G.W., J.S. Hardy, K.D. Meinhardt, O.A. Marina, and S.P. Simner. 2002. "All-Ceramic SOFC Tolerant to Oxygen, Carbon and Sulfur." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar: Fuel Cells - Reliable, Clean Energy for the World, November 19-21, 2002, Palm Springs, California., 295-298. Washington, District Of Columbia:Fuel Cell Seminar. PNNL-SA-39163.
  • Marina O.A., and L.R. Pederson. 2002. "Novel Ceramic Anodes for SOFCs Tolerant to Oxygen, Carbon and Sulfur." In 5th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, edited by Joep Huijsmans, 1, 481-489. Lucerne:European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum. PNNL-SA-36874.
  • Marina O.A., N.L. Canfield, and J.W. Stevenson. 2002. "Thermal, Electrical, and Electrocatalytical Properties of Lanthanum-Doped Strontium Titanate." Solid State Ionics 149, no. 1-2:21-28. PNNL-SA-35369.

2000

  • Marina O.A., and M. Mogenson. 2000. "High-Temperature Conversion of Methane on a Composite Gadolina-doped Ceria- Gold Electrode." Applied Catalysis. A, General 189, no. 1:117-126. PNNL-SA-32892.
  • Marina O.A., C. Bagger, S. Primdahl, and M. Mogenson. 2000. "A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with a Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Anode: Preparation and Performance." Solid State Ionics 123, no. 1-4:199-208. PNNL-SA-32891.

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