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Energy Materials Group

Jie Xiao

Jie Xiao

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Jie Xiao is currently a chief scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She also holds a joint position at Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry at University of Arkansas. Dr. Xiao obtained her Ph.D degree in Materials Chemistry from State University of New York at Binghamton in 2008. She received her B.S (2001) and M.S.(2004) degrees both from Wuhan University, China. Dr. Xiao’s research interest focused on the identification of new materials and novel technologies for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. She has been leading research thrusts on both practical applications and fundamental study of energy storage materials and systems, spanning from micro-batteries for acoustic fish tags to advanced battery technologies for vehicle electrification and stationary applications. She was the recipient of several awards including Arkansas Research Alliance Scholar, Ronald L. Brodzinski Early Career Exceptional Achievement Award, Zapperd Award from the American Chemical Society (ACS) and R&D 100 award etc. Her work has been widely reported by many media including C&EN News, R&D magazine, U.S. Department of State etc. Dr. Xiao has published more than 100 peer-reviewed journal papers (Google H-index:52), 2 book chapters and filed 18 US patents (issued and pending) in the area of energy storage research area.

Research Interests

  • Synthesis of functional materials (electrode materials, binder, carbon, high energy cathodes etc) for energy applications
  • Interfacial reactions and their underlying mechanism for energy storage
  • Understand the synthesis-structure performance relationship in energy-related materials
  • Electrolyte and additives for Li-ion batteries and beyond and battery safety improvement
  • Cell design and fabrication for different industry need
  • Microbattery technology for medical devices, wireless transmitters and sensors et
  • Oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium oxygen batteries
  • Chemistry and electrochemistry in lithium sulfur

Education and Credentials

  • 2004-2008 PhD, Chemistry, Binghamton University, State University of New York, NY
  • 2001-2004 MS, Electrochemistry, Wuhan University, China
  • 1997-2001 BS, Chemistry, Wuhan University, China

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • 2017-present Chief scientist at PNNL
  • 2016 - Present Associate Professor at University of Arkansas (Joint position)
  • 2010-2015 Scientist (from II to IV) at PNNL
  • 2008-2010 Postdoctoral research associate at PNNL

Awards and Recognitions

  • Arkansas Research Alliance Scholar (2015)
  • Project of The Year Award from PNNL (2013, 2014)
  • Ronald L. Brodzinski Early Career Exceptional Achievement Award (2013)
  • R&D 100 Award: "Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries" (2012)
  • Publication of The Year Award from PNNL (2013)
  • Outstanding Performance Award from PNNL (2009, 2010, 2012)
  • Zappert Award from the American Chemical Society (ACS) (2008)
  • Clifford E. Myers Award from SUNY Binghamton (2008)
  • Excellent Teaching Fellowship from SUNY Binghamton (2005, 2006)

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Wang Y, D Lu, ME Bowden, PZ El-Khoury, KS Han, Z Deng, J Xiao, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2018. "Mechanism of Formation of Li7P3S11 Solid Electrolytes through Liquid Phase Synthesis." Chemistry of Materials 30(3):990-997.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b04842
  • Wang Y, Q Li, S Cartmell, H Li, SA Mendoza, J Zhang, Z Deng, and J Xiao. 2018. "Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries." Nano Energy 43:310-316.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.11.046


  • Lu D, J Tao, P Yan, WA Henderson, Q Li, Y Shao, ML Helm, O Borodin, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, JJ De Yoreo, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2017. "Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes." Nano Letters 17(3):1602-1609.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04766
  • Zheng J, P Yan, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, Z Zhu, B Polzin, S Trask, J Xiao, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "Suppressed Oxygen Extraction and Degradation of LiNi x Mn y Co z O2 Cathodes at High Charge Cut-off Voltages." Nano Research 10(12):4221-4231.  doi:10.1007/s12274-017-1761-6
  • Zheng J, S Myeong, W Cho, P Yan, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Cho, and J Zhang. 2017. "Li- and Mn-rich Cathode Materials: Challenges to Commercialization." Advanced Energy Materials 7(6):Article No. 1601284.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201601284
  • Pan H, KS Han, M Vijayakumar, J Xiao, R Cao, J Chen, J Zhang, KT Mueller, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2017. "Ammonium additives to dissolve lithium sulfide through hydrogen binding for high energy lithium-sulfur batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(5):4290-4295.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04158
  • Wang X, M Zhang, J Alvarado, S Wang, M Sina, B Lu, J Bouwer, W Xu, J Xiao, J Zhang, J Liu, and YS Meng. 2017. "New Insights on the Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Lithium Metal and Its Solid Electrolyte Interphases via Cryogenic TEM." Nano Letters 17(12):7606-7612.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03606
  • Wang Y, SS Cartmell, Q Li, J Xiao, H Li, Z Deng, and J Zhang. 2017. "A reliable sealing method for microbatteries." Journal of Power Sources 341:443-447.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.12.024
  • Yan P, J Zheng, M Gu, J Xiao, J Zhang, and C Wang. 2017. "Intragranular Cracking as a Critical Barrier For High-voltage Usage of Layer-structured Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries." Nature Communications 8:Article No. 14101.  doi:10.1038/ncomms14101


  • Bhattacharya P, MI Nandasiri, D Lv, AM Schwarz, JT Darsell, WA Henderson, DA Tomalia, J Liu, J Zhang, and J Xiao. 2016. "Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes." Nano Energy 19:176-186.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.11.012
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, and J Zhang. 2016. "The Roles of Oxygen Non-Stoichiometry on the Electrochemical Properties of Oxide-Based Cathode Materials." Nano Today 11(5):678-694.  doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2016.08.011
  • Chen J, KS Han, WA Henderson, KC Lau, M Vijayakumar, T Dzwiniel, H Pan, LA Curtiss, J Xiao, KT Mueller, Y Shao, and J Liu. 2016. "Restricting the Solubility of Polysulfides in Li-S Batteries Via Electrolyte Salt Selection." Advanced Energy Materials 6(11):Article No. 1600160.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201600160
  • Lu J, Z Deng, H Li, MJ Myjak, JJ Martinez, J Xiao, RS Brown, and SS Cartmell. 2016. "A SMALL LONG-LIFE ACOUSTIC TRANSMITTER FOR STUDYING THE BEHAVIOR OF AQUATIC ANIMALS." Review of Scientific Instruments 87(11):114902.  doi:10.1063/1.4967941
  • Wang Y, P Yan, J Xiao, X Lu, J Zhang, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Effect of Al2O3 on the Sintering of Garnet-Type Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12." Solid State Ionics 294:108-115.  doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2016.06.013
  • Wu B, S Wang, WJ Evans, IV, Z Deng, J Yang, and J Xiao. 2016. "Interfacial Behaviours Between Lithium Ion Conductors and Electrode Materials in Various Battery Systems." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4(40):15266-15280.  doi:10.1039/C6TA05439K
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, WA Henderson, ML Sushko, Y Shao, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, and J Liu. 2016. "Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries." Nano Energy 19:279-288.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.034
  • Yan P, J Zheng, J Zheng, Z Wang, G Teng, S Kuppan, J Xiao, G Chen, J Zhang, CM Wang, and F Pan. 2016. "Ni And Co Segregations On Selective Surface Facets And Rational Design Of Layered Lithium Transition-metal Oxide Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 6(9):Article No. 1502455.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201502455
  • Yan P, J Zheng, X Zhang, R Xu, K Amine, J Xiao, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2016. "Atomic to Nanoscale Investigation of Functionalities of Al2O3 Coating Layer on Cathode for Enhanced Battery Performance." Chemistry of Materials 28(3):857-863.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04301


  • Cao R, W Xu, D Lu, J Xiao, and J Zhang. 2015. "Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402273.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402273
  • Lu D, P Yan, Y Shao, Q Li, SA Ferrara, H Pan, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Performance Li-ion Sulfur Batteries Enabled by Intercalation Chemistry." Chemical Communications 51(70):13454-13457.  doi:10.1039/C5CC05171A
  • Lu D, Y Shao, TJ Lozano, WD Bennett, GL Graff, B Polzin, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, NT Saenz, WA Henderson, P Bhattacharya, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 5(3):Article No. 1400993.  doi:10.1002/AENM.201400993
  • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Zheng J, P Xu, M Gu, J Xiao, ND Browning, P Yan, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2015. "Structural and Chemical Evolution of Li- and Mn-rich Layered Cathode Material." Chemistry of Materials 27(4):1381-1390.  doi:10.1021/cm5045978
  • Zheng J, P Yan, M Gu, MJ Wagner, K Hays, J Chen, XS Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Interfacial Reaction Dependent Performance of Hollow Carbon NanoSphere - Sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 25.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00025
  • Chen J, D Wu, ED Walter, MH Engelhard, P Bhattacharya, H Pan, Y Shao, F Gao, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "Molecular-Confinement of Polysulfide within Mesoscale Electrodes for the Practical Application of Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Energy 13:267-274.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.01.031
  • Deng Z, TJ Carlson, H Li, J Xiao, MJ Myjak, J Lu, JJ Martinez, CM Woodley, MA Weiland, and MB Eppard. 2015. "An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon." Scientific Reports 5:8111.  doi:10.1038/srep08111
  • Devaraj A, M Gu, RJ Colby, P Yan, CM Wang, J Zheng, J Xiao, A Genc, J Zhang, I Belharouak, D Wang, K Amine, and S Thevuthasan. 2015. "Visualizing Nanoscale 3D Compositional Fluctuation of Lithium in Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 8014.  doi:10.1038/ncomms9014
  • Liu TL, JT Cox, D Hu, X Deng, JZ Hu, MY Hu, J Xiao, Y Shao, K Tang, and J Liu. 2015. "A Fundamental Study on the [(µ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ Dimer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries." Chemical Communications 51(12):2312-2315.  doi:10.1039/c4cc07621d
  • Lu D, J Zheng, Q Li, X Xie, SA Ferrara, Z Nie, BL Mehdi, ND Browning, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402290.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402290
  • Pan H, X Wei, WA Henderson, Y Shao, J Chen, P Bhattacharya, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "On the way toward understanding solution chemistry of lithium polysulfides for high energy Li-S redox flow batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1500113.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201500113
  • Wang Q, J Zheng, ED Walter, H Pan, D Lu, P Zuo, H Chen, Z Deng, BY Liaw, X Yu, X Yang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 162(3):A474-A478.  doi:10.1149/2.0851503jes
  • Wang Y, B Liu, Q Li, SS Cartmell, SA Ferrara, Z Deng, and J Xiao. 2015. "Lithium and lithium ion batteries for applications in microelectronic devices: A review." Journal of Power Sources 286:330-345.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.164
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, H Chen, M Vijayakumar, J Zheng, H Pan, ED Walter, MY Hu, X Deng, J Feng, BY Liaw, M Gu, Z Deng, D Lu, S Xu, CM Wang, and J Liu. 2015. "Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique." Nano Letters 15(5):3309-3316.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521
  • Xiao L, J Xiao, X Yu, P Yan, J Zheng, MH Engelhard, P Bhattacharya, CM Wang, XQ Yang, and J Zhang. 2015. "Effects of structural defects on the electrochemical activation of Li2MnO3." Nano Energy 16:143-151.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.06.011
  • Yan P, J Zheng, D Lv, Y Wei, J Zheng, Z Wang, S Kuppan, J Yu, L Luo, DJ Edwards, MJ Olszta, K Amine, J Liu, J Xiao, F Pan, G Chen, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials." Chemistry of Materials 27(15):5393-5401.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b02016
  • Yan P, J Zheng, J Xiao, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2015. "Recent Advances on the Understanding of Structural and Composition Evolution of LMR Cathode for Li ion Batteries." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 26.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00026
  • Yan P, J Zheng, S Kuppan, Q Li, D Lv, J Xiao, G Chen, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling." Chemistry of Materials 27(21):7447-7451.  doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b03510
  • Yan P, A Nie, J Zheng, Y Zhou, D Lu, X Zhang, R Xu, I Belharouak, X Zu, J Xiao, K Amine, J Liu, F Gao, R Shahbazian-Yassar, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Evolution Of Lattice Structure And Chemical Composition Of The Surface Reconstruction Layer In Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode Material For Lithium Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 15(1):514-522.  doi:10.1021/nl5038598
  • Yan P, L Xiao, J Zheng, Y Zhou, Y He, X Zu, SX Mao, J Xiao, F Gao, J Zhang, and CM Wang. 2015. "Probing the Degradation Mechanism of Li2MnO3 Cathode for Li-Ion Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 27(3):975-982.  doi:10.1021/cm504257m
  • Yu X, H Pan, Y Zhou, P Northrup, J Xiao, S Bak, M Liu, KW Nam, D Qu, J Liu, T Wu, and XQ Yang. 2015. "Direct Observation of the Redistribution of Sulfur and Polysufides in Li-S Batteries During the First Cycle by In Situ X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):, doi:10.1002/aenm.201500072


  • Zheng J, J Tian, D Wu, M Gu, W Xu, CM Wang, F Gao, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2014. "Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Letters 14(5):2345-2352.  doi:10.1021/nl404721h
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, M Gu, P Zuo, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2014. "Interface Modifications by Anion Acceptors for High Energy Lithium Ion Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 250:313-318.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.071
  • Zheng J, M Gu, A Genc, J Xiao, P Xu, X Chen, Z Zhu, W Zhao, L Pullan, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2014. "Mitigating Voltage Fade in Cathode Materials by Improving the Atomic Level Uniformity of Elemental Distribution." Nano Letters 14(5):2628-2635.  doi:10.1021/nl500486y
  • Zheng J, M Gu, J Xiao, B Polzin, P Yan, X Chen, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2014. "Functioning mechanism of AlF3 coating on the Li- and Mn-rich cathode materials." Chemistry of Materials 26(22):6320-6327.  doi:10.1021/cm502071h
  • Chen H, SS Cartmell, Q Wang, TJ Lozano, Z Deng, H Li, X Chen, Y Yuan, ME Gross, TJ Carlson, and J Xiao. 2014. "Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications." Scientific Reports 4:Article Number 3790.  doi:10.1038/srep03790
  • Chen X, X Li, D Mei, J Feng, MY Hu, JZ Hu, MH Engelhard, J Zheng, W Xu, J Xiao, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Reduction Mechanism of Fluoroethylene Carbonate for Stable Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Film on Silicon Anode." ChemSusChem 7(2):549-554.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300770
  • Huang C, J Xiao, Y Shao, J Zheng, WD Bennett, D Lu, LV Saraf, MH Engelhard, L Ji, J Zhang, X Li, GL Graff, and J Liu. 2014. "Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 3015.  doi:10.1038/ncomms4015
  • Ji L, M Gu, Y Shao, X Li, MH Engelhard, BW Arey, W Wang, Z Nie, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage." Advanced Materials 26(18):2901-2908.  doi:10.1002/adma.201304962
  • Jiang J, W Shi, J Zheng, P Zuo, J Xiao, X Chen, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 161(3):A336-A341.  doi:10.1149/2.052403jes
  • Shao Y, M Gu, X Li, Z Nie, P Zuo, G Li, TL Liu, J Xiao, Y Cheng, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(1):255-260.  doi:10.1021/nl403874y
  • Shao Y, NN Rajput, JZ Hu, MY Hu, TL Liu, Z Wei, M Gu, X Deng, S Xu, KS Han, J Wang, Z Nie, G Li, K Zavadil, J Xiao, CM Wang, WA Henderson, J Zhang, Y Wang, KT Mueller, KA Persson, and J Liu. 2014. "Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries." Nano Energy 2015(12):750-759.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.12.028
  • Vijayakumar M, N Govind, ED Walter, SD Burton, AK Shukla, A Devaraj, J Xiao, J Liu, CM Wang, AM Karim, and S Thevuthasan. 2014. "Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16(22):10923-10932.  doi:10.1039/c4cp00889H
  • Xiao J, Z Deng, TJ Carlson, and MB Eppard. 2014. "Building better microbatteries: from fundamental research to manufacturing." SPIE Newsroom March 31, 2014:,
  • Xiao J, P Meduri, H Chen, Z Wang, F Gao, JZ Hu, J Feng, MY Hu, S Dai, S Brown, JL Adcock, Z Deng, J Liu, GL Graff, IA Aksay, and J Zhang. 2014. "Energetics of Defects on Graphene through Fluorination." ChemSusChem 7(5):1295-1300.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201301066
  • Zhang J, J Xiao, and W Xu. 2014. "Primary Lithium-Air Batteries." Chapter 10 in The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals, ed. N Imanishi, AC Luntz and P Bruce, pp. 255-289.  Springer, New York, NY. 


  • Zheng J, D Lu, M Gu, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(11):A2288-A2292.  doi:10.1149/2.106311jes
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2013. "Lattice Mn3+ Behaviors in Li4Ti5O12/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Full Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(8):A1264-A1268.  doi:10.1149/2.097308jes
  • Zheng J, M Gu, CM Wang, P Zuo, PK Koech, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "Controlled Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2/Li2S in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(11):A1992-A1996.  doi:10.1149/2.032311jes
  • Zheng J, M Gu, H Chen, P Meduri, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(29):8464-8470.  doi:10.1039/C3TA11553D
  • Zheng J, M Gu, J Xiao, P Zuo, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2013. "Corrosion/Fragmentation of Layered Composite Cathode and Related Capacity/Voltage Fading during Cycling Process." Nano Letters 13(8):3824-3830.  doi:10.1021/nl401849t
  • Zheng J, M Gu, MJ Wagner, K Hays, XS Li, P Zuo, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2013. "Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(10):A1624-A1628.  doi:10.1149/2.013310jes
  • Zheng J, W Shi, M Gu, J Xiao, P Zuo, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2013. "Electrochemical Kinetics and Performance of Layered Composite Cathode Material Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(11):A2212-A2219.  doi:10.1149/2.090311jes
  • Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, X Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, J Xiao, X Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(11):4450-4456.  doi:10.1021/ja312241y
  • Gu M, I Belharouak, J Zheng, H Wu, J Xiao, A Genc, K Amine, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, ND Browning, J Liu, and CM Wang. 2013. "Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries." ACS Nano 7(1):760-767.  doi:10.1021/nn305065u
  • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, Y Shao, Q Luo, X Wei, X Li, J Xiao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13(3):1330-1335.  doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Liu J, J Zhang, Z Yang, JP Lemmon, CH Imhoff, GL Graff, L Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, VL Sprenkle, X Li, Y Shao, and B Schwenzer. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):929-946.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690
  • Meduri P, H Chen, J Xiao, JJ Martinez, TJ Carlson, J Zhang, and Z Deng. 2013. "Tunable Electrochemical Properties of Fluorinated Graphene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(27):7866-7869.  doi:10.1039/c3ta11710c
  • Shao Y, F Ding, J Xiao, J Zhang, W Xu, SK Park, J Zhang, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2013. "Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):987-1004.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200688
  • Shao Y, J Xiao, W Wang, MH Engelhard, X Chen, Z Nie, M Gu, LV Saraf, GJ Exarhos, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams." Nano Letters 13(8):3909-3914.  doi:10.1021/nl401995a
  • Shao Y, TL Liu, G Li, M Gu, Z Nie, MH Engelhard, J Xiao, D Lu, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance." Scientific Reports 3:Article No. 3130.  doi:10.1038/srep03130
  • Wang Z, M Gu, Y Zhou, X Zu, JG Connell, J Xiao, DE Perea, LJ Lauhon, J Bang, S Zhang, CM Wang, and F Gao. 2013. "Electron-Rich Driven Electrochemical Solid-State Amorphization in Li-Si Alloys." Nano Letters 13(9):4511-4516.  doi:10.1021/nl402429a
  • Wang Z, X Niu, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Liu, and F Gao. 2013. "First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries." RSC Advances 3(37):16775-16780.  doi:10.1039/C3RA41333K
  • Xiao J, J Zheng, X Li, Y Shao, and J Zhang. 2013. "Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries." Nanotechnology 24(42):Article No. 424004.  doi:10.1088/0957-4484/24/42/424004
  • Xiao J, X Yu, J Zheng, Y Zhou, F Gao, X Chen, J Bai, XQ Yang, and J Zhang. 2013. "Interplay between two-phase and solid solution reactions in high voltage spinel cathode material for lithium ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 242:736-741.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.05.148
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, B Schwenzer, MH Engelhard, LV Saraf, Z Nie, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 2013. "Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(33):9517-9526.  doi:10.1039/C3TA10865A
  • Zhan H, J Xiao, Z Nie, X Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations." Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 2(2):151-159.  doi:10.1016/j.coche.2013.03.007


  • Xu W, AL Read, PK Koech, D Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, AB Padmaperuma, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2012. "Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(9):4032-4039.  doi:10.1039/c2jm15764k
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, W Xu, X Chen, M Gu, XS Li, and J Zhang. 2012. "Surface and Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 227:211-217.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.038
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, X Yu, L Kovarik, M Gu, F Omenya, X Chen, XQ Yang, J Liu, GL Graff, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2012. "Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14(39):13515-13521. 
  • Cao Y, L Xiao, ML Sushko, W Wang, B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2012. "Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications." Nano Letters 12(7):3783-3787.  doi:10.1021/nl3016957
  • Chen X, W Xu, J Xiao, MH Engelhard, F Ding, D Mei, D Hu, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2012. "Effects of cell positive cans and separators on the performance of high-voltage Li-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 213:160-168.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.009
  • Chen X, X Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, Y Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2012. "Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 12(8):4124-4130.  doi:10.1021/nl301657y
  • Li X, P Meduri, X Chen, WN Qi, MH Engelhard, W Xu, F Ding, J Xiao, W Wang, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2012. "Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(22):11014-11017.  doi:10.1039/C2JM31286G
  • Shao Y, SK Park, J Xiao, J Zhang, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective." ACS Catalysis 2(5):844-857.  doi:10.1021/cs300036v
  • Xiao J, X Chen, PV Sushko, ML Sushko, L Kovarik, J Feng, Z Deng, J Zheng, GL Graff, Z Nie, D Choi, J Liu, J Zhang, and MS Whittingham. 2012. "High-Performance LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Spinel Controlled by Mn3+ Concentration and Site Disorder." Advanced Materials 24(16):2109-2116.  doi:10.1002/adma.201104767
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, B Schwenzer, MH Engelhard, LV Saraf, Z Nie, GJ Exarhos, and J Liu. 2012. "A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 24(9):1176-1181.  doi:10.1002/adma.201103392
  • Xiao L, Y Cao, J Xiao, W Wang, L Kovarik, Z Nie, and J Liu. 2012. "High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications." Chemical Communications 48(27):3321-3323.  doi:10.1039/C2CC17129E
  • Xu W, JZ Hu, MH Engelhard, SA Towne, JS Hardy, J Xiao, J Feng, MY Hu, J Zhang, F Ding, ME Gross, and J Zhang. 2012. "The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215:240-247.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.021
  • Xu W, X Chen, F Ding, J Xiao, D Wang, A Pan, J Zheng, XS Li, AB Padmaperuma, and J Zhang. 2012. "Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications." Journal of Power Sources 213:304-316.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.031
  • Zhang J, W Wang, J Xiao, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Yang, D Choi, X Li, D Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology.  Springer, New York, NY. 


  • Xu W, K Xu, VV Viswanathan, SA Towne, JS Hardy, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2011. "Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(22):9631-9639.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.06.099
  • Xu W, VV Viswanathan, D Wang, SA Towne, J Xiao, Z Nie, D Hu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 196(8):3894-3899. 
  • Choi D, J Xiao, YJ Choi, JS Hardy, M Vijayakumar, MS Bhuvaneswari, J Liu, W Xu, W Wang, Z Yang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4(11):4560-4566.  doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Li X, Y Cao, WN Qi, LV Saraf, J Xiao, Z Nie, J Mietek, J Zhang, B Schwenzer, and J Liu. 2011. "Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium-sulfur battery applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(41):16603-16610.  doi:10.1039/C1JM12979A
  • Meduri P, H Chen, X Chen, J Xiao, ME Gross, TJ Carlson, J Zhang, and Z Deng. 2011. "Hybrid CFx-Ag2V4O11 as a high-energy, power density cathode for application in an underwater acoustic microtransmitter." Electrochemistry Communications 13(12):1344-1348.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2011.08.006
  • Pan A, J Zhang, G Cao, S Liang, CM Wang, Z Nie, BW Arey, W Xu, D Liu, J Xiao, G Li, and J Liu. 2011. "Nanosheet-structured LiV3O8 with high capacity and excellent stability for high energy lithium batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(27):10077-10084.  doi:10.1039/C1JM10976F
  • Wang CM, W Xu, J Liu, J Zhang, LV Saraf, BW Arey, D Choi, Z Yang, J Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2011. "In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Microstructure and Phase Evolution in a SnO2 Nanowire during Lithium Intercalation." Nano Letters 11(5):1874-1880.  doi:10.1021/nl200272n
  • Wang D, J Xiao, W Xu, Z Nie, CM Wang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Preparation and electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(4):2241-2245.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.10.021
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, D Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Nie, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 196(13):5674-5678. 
  • Xiao J, N Chernova, S Upreti, X Chen, Z Li, Z Deng, D Choi, W Xu, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2011. "Electrochemical Performances of LiMnPO4 Synthesized from Non-Stoichiometric Li/Mn Ratio." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(40):18099-18106.  doi:10.1039/C1CP22658D
  • Xiao J, X Wang, XQ Yang, S Xun, G Liu, PK Koech, J Liu, and JP Lemmon. 2011. "Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction of PEO/MoS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Lithium." Advanced Functional Materials 21(15):2840-2846.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201002752


  • Choi D, D Wang, IT Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, VV Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10(8):2799-2805.  doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Pan A, J Liu, J Zhang, GH Cao, W Xu, Z Nie, J Xiao, D Choi, BW Arey, CM Wang, and S Liang. 2010. "Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(4):1153-1161.  doi:10.1039/c0jm02810j
  • Schulz DL, J Hoey, J Smith, A Elangovan, X Wu, I Akhatov, S Payne, J Moore, P Boudjouk, L Pederson, J Xiao, and J Zhang. 2010. " Si6H12/Polymer Inks for Electrospinning a-Si Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13(10):A143-A145 .  doi:10.1149/1.3466994
  • Wang D, J Xiao, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2010. "High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):A760-A764. 
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2010. "Hybrid Air-Electrode for Li/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(3):A294-A297.  doi:10.1149/1.3280281
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(10):A1047-A1051.  doi:10.1149/1.3464767
  • Xiao J, D Choi, L Cosimbescu, PK Koech, J Liu, and JP Lemmon. 2010. "Exfoliated MoS2 Nanocomposite as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 22(16):4522-4524. 
  • Xiao J, D Wang, W Xu, D Wang, RE Williford, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Optimization of Air Electrode for Li/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(4):A487-A492.  doi:10.1149/1.3314375
  • Xu W, NL Canfield, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2010. "A three-dimensional Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheet prepared via a novel method." Journal of Power Sources 195(21):7403-7408.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.054
  • Xu W, NL Canfield, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, XS Li, WD Bennett, CC Bonham, and J Zhang. 2010. "Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):A765-A769. 
  • Xu W, J Xiao, D Wang, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2010. "Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13(4):A48-A51. 
  • Xu W, J Xiao, D Wang, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2010. "Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on Primary Li-Air Batteries." In Proceedings of the 44th Power Sources Conference, pp. 43-46.  US Army Electronics Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ. 
  • Zhang J, D Wang, W Xu, J Xiao, and RE Williford. 2010. "Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4332-4337.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.01.022


  • Xu W, D Wang, J Xiao, Z Nie, and J Zhang. 2009. "Non-aqueous Electrolytes for High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries." In Proceedings of the 9th International Advanced Automotive Battery and EC Capacitor Conference and Symposia: Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application (LLIBTA); Large EC Capacitor Technology and Application (ECCAP), June 8-12, 2009, Long Beach, CA.  Advanced Automotive Batteries, Oregon House, CA. 
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Choi, and J Zhang. 2009. "Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Manganese Phosphate by a precipitation method." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(2):A142-A147.  doi:10.1149/1.3265440
  • Xu W, J Xiao, J Zhang, D Wang, and J Zhang. 2009. "Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 156(10):A773-A779.  doi:10.1149/1.3168564
  • Xu W, J Xiao, D Wang, J Zhang, and J Zhang. 2009. "Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on the Performance of Primary Lithium/Air Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(2):A219-A224.  doi:10.1149/1.3269928

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