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Energy Materials Group

Xiaochuan Lu

Xiaochuan Lu

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Xiaochuan Lu is currently a Senior Research Scientist in the Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group at PNNL. He has over twelve years of experience in all kinds of energy materials for fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, etc. His current research interests include Na batteries, Li-ion batteries, redox flow batteries, solid electrolytes (e.g., beta-alumina, garnet-type conductor, etc.). Dr. Lu has published more than 40 papers in peer reviewed professional journals, 2 book chapters and 10 U.S. patents (including pending).

Research Interests

  • All types of electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as Na batteries, Li-ion batteries, solid-state batteries, redox flow batteries, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).
  • High-temperature materials.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University
  • M.S. Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University B.S. Material Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of the Electrochemical Society
  • Member of the American Ceramic Society
  • Member of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society
  • Advisor and guest editor for The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society since 2014
  • Conference organizers: co-organizer for 2013 ECS spring meeting and 2012 MRS spring meeting; session chair in MS&T 2011 and MS&T 2012
  • Reviewer: proposal reviewer for DOE ARPA-E program, DOE VTO program, DOE SBIR/STTR Program, National Science Foundation (NSF); journal reviewer for Nature Materials, Nature Communications, Advanced Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Energy Materials, Energy & Environmental Science, Chemical Communications, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Journal of Power Sources, Journal of Materials Research, Journal of the American Chemical Society, etc.

Awards and Recognitions

  • Project of The Year Award from PNNL (2013); Outstanding Performance Award from PNNL (2010, 2011, and 2012)

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Chang HJ, X Lu, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, S Son, YC Park, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Development of Intermediate Temperature Sodium Nickel Chloride Rechargeable Batteries using Conventional Polymer Sealing Technologies." Journal of Power Sources 348:150-157.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059
  • Lu X, HJ Chang, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Effect of Cathode Thickness on the Performance of Planar Na-NiCl2 Battery." Journal of Power Sources 365:456-462.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029


  • Jiang X, TJ Roosendaal, X Lu, O Palasyuk, KW Dennis, ME Dahl, JP Choi, E Polikarpov, M Marinescu, and J Cui. 2016. "Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Low Temperature Phase MnBi." Journal of Applied Physics 119(3):Article No. 033903.  doi:10.1063/1.4939811
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, HJ Chang, NL Canfield, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Advanced Intermediate Temperature Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries with Ultra-High Energy Density." Nature Communications 7:Article No. 10683.  doi:10.1038/ncomms10683
  • Lu X, G Li, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Development of Na-beta alumina batteries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: From tubular to planar." Energy Storage Science and Technology (Chuneng Kexue yu Jishu) 5(3):309-316. 
  • Wang Y, P Yan, J Xiao, X Lu, J Zhang, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Effect of Al2O3 on the Sintering of Garnet-Type Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12." Solid State Ionics 294:108-115.  doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2016.06.013


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, VV Viswanathan, KD Meinhardt, MH Engelhard, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application." Advanced Energy Materials 5(12):Article No.1500357.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201570069
  • Lu X, ME Bowden, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2015. "A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage." Advanced Materials 27(39):5915-5922.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502343
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Enhanced Sintering of ß"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2." Journal of Power Sources 295:167-174.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.147


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C ." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, MH Engelhard, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 272:398-403.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.106
  • Lu X, and ZG Yang. 2014. "Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage." Chapter 5 in Advances in Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage: Types and Applications, ed. C Menictas, M Skyllas-Kazacos and LT Mariana, pp. 91-124.  Woodhead Publishing, Waltham, MA. 
  • Bowden ME, KJ Alvine, JL Fulton, JP Lemmon, X Lu, BJM Webb-Robertson, SM Heald, M Balasubramanian, DR Mortensen, GT Seidler, and NJ Hess. 2014. "X-ray Absorption Measurements on Nickel Cathode of Sodium-beta Alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-CI Chemical Associations." Journal of Power Sources 247:517-526.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.08.046
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, D Mei, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2014. "Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4578.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5578
  • Wang W, X Wei, D Choi, X Lu, G Yang, and C Sun. 2014. "Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage." Chapter 1 in Advances in Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage, ed. C Menictas, M Skyllas-Kazacos and LT Mariana, pp. 3-28.  Woodhead Publishing, Waltham, MA. 


  • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(47):14935 - 14942.  doi:10.1039/C3TA13644B
  • Reed DM, GW Coffey, ES Mast, NL Canfield, J Mansurov, X Lu, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Wetting of Sodium on ß?-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries ." Journal of Power Sources 227:94-100.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.034
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2013. "A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(6):1837-1843.  doi:10.1039/C3EE24244G
  • Lu X, BW Kirby, W Xu, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(1):299 - 306.  doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
  • Lu X, JP Lemmon, JY Kim, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery." Journal of Power Sources 224:312-316.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.108


  • Li G, X Lu, CA Coyle, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries." Journal of Power Sources 220:193-198.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.089
  • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215:288-295.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.020


  • Yang Z, J Zhang, MCW Kintner-Meyer, X Lu, D Choi, JP Lemmon, and J Liu. 2011. "Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid." Chemical Reviews 111(5):3577-3613.  doi:10.1021/cr100290v


  • Lu X, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2010. "Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status and Challenges." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 62(9):31-36. 
  • Lu X, G Xia, JP Lemmon, and Z Yang. 2010. "Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives." Journal of Power Sources 195(9):2431 - 2442.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.11.120
  • Lu X, GW Coffey, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, Z Yang, and JP Lemmon. 2010. "High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery." ECS Transactions 28(22):7-13.  doi:10.1149/1.3492326


  • Lu X, J Zhu, Z Yang, G Xia, and JW Stevenson. 2009. "Pd-impregnated SYT/LDC composite as sulfur-tolerant anode for solid oxide fuel cells." Journal of Power Sources 192(2):381-384. 

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