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Wei Wang

Wei Wang

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Wei Wang is a senior scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). He is currently the thrust lead on stationary energy storage R&D with a diverse portfolio including redox flow, lithium-ion, and sodium-ion batteries, as well as hydrogen production technologies. His research spans from materials synthesis, electrochemistry, catalysis to photovoltaics with main focus on energy conversion and storage technologies. He is interested in the investigation of the synthesis-structure-performance relationship in energy-related materials, and the understanding of the underlying material chemistry and physic principles, particularly the development of new materials and novel energy technologies. His work has been widely covered by the media, e.g., Science, Nature, R&D magazine, Scientific American, Materials Views, etc. Dr. Wang joined PNNL in 2009 after received his Ph.D in materials science and engineering from Carnegie Mellon University.

He was honored as one of the two recipients at PNNL with Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement in 2012 for his accomplishments in state-of-the-art stationary energy storage technologies. He was also recognized by the R&D Magazine with the R&D 100 Award in 2012 for his contribution on graphene enhances lithium-ion batteries. In 2013, he was awarded FLC Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer by the Federal Laboratory Consortium for the advanced vanadium redox flow battery technology. He was one of 41 awardees in the US Department of Energy’s ARPA-E OPEN 2015 (the 3rd open call for proposals) for his HyFe dual mode redox flow cell concept.

His 60+ published articles on electrochemical devices, nanostructured materials, and membranes have been widely cited in the scientific community (h-index = 25, total citation = 2500+, 6 papers > 200 citations, 3 book chapters). He has been an inventor on 9 issued and 15+ pending patents. Technologies developed in his lab have been licensed to several companies including UniEnergy Technologies, Imergy Power Systems, WattJoule Corporation, and Vorbeck Materials.

Research Interests

  • Material science and electrochemistry.
  • Component research and system integration of redox flow battery technology both aqueous and nonaqueous systems.
  • Materials synthesis and characterization of electrode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion battery
  • Innovative energy storage technologies

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University
  • M.S. Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University
  • B.A. Ceramic Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Society member: MRS and ECS
  • Conference organizer: Lead organizer for MRS 2016 fall meeting on Materials Challenges for Flow-based Energy Conversion and Storage
  • Proposal review: Reviewer for US DOE FCTO, ARPA-E, SBIR/STTR programs
  • Journal reviewer: Nature Communications, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Nano Letters, Advanced Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Energy & Environmental Science, Chemical Communications, Chemistry of Materials, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Electrochimica Acta, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Journal of Power Sources, etc.

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2015 Awardee of US DOE ARPA-E’s OPEN 2015 Program
  • 2015 Publication of The Year Award from PNNL
  • 2014 FLC Far West Region Outstanding Technology Development
  • 2013 FLC Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer
  • 2012 Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement
  • 2012 R&D 100 Award
  • 2012 PNNL Exceptional Contribution Award
  • 2012, 2013, 2014 PNNL Key Contributor Award

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Duan W., B. Li, D. Lu, X. Wei, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2018. "Towards an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Higher Theoretical Volumetric Capacities by Utilizing the VO2+/V3+ Couple." Journal of Energy Chemistry 27, no. 5:1381-1385. PNNL-SA-127931. doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2018.05.020
  • Hollas A.M., X. Wei, V. Murugesan, Z. Nie, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and J. Liu, et al. 2018. "A biomimetic high-capacity phenazine-based anolyte for aqueous organic redox flow batteries." Nature Energy 3, no. 6:508-514. PNNL-SA-130788. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0167-3
  • Xie C., H. Zhang, W. Xu, W. Wang, and X. Li. 2018. "A Long Cycle Life, Self-Healing Zinc-Iodine Flow Battery with High Power Density." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 57, no. 35:11171-11176. PNNL-SA-131307. doi:10.1002/anie.201803122
  • Xu P., C. Xie, C. Wang, Q. Lai, W. Wang, H. Zhang, and X. Li. 2018. "A membrane-free Interfacial Battery with High Energy Density." Chemical Communications 54, no. 82:11626-11629. PNNL-SA-129368. doi:10.1039/c8cc06048g


  • Duan W., J. Huang, J.A. Kowalski, I.A. Shkrob, V. Murugesan, E.D. Walter, and B. Pan, et al. 2017. ""Wine-Dark Sea" in An Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 5:1156-1161. PNNL-SA-120607. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00261
  • Wei X., W. Pan, W. Duan, A.M. Hollas, Z. Yang, B. Li, and Z. Nie, et al. 2017. "Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 9:2187-2204. PNNL-SA-128015. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00650
  • Zhang J., Z. Yang, I.A. Shkrob, R.S. Assary, S. Tung, B. Silcox, and W. Duan, et al. 2017. "Annulated dialkoxybenzenes as catholyte materials for nonaqueous redox flow batteries: achieving high chemical stability through bicyclic substitution." Advanced Energy Materials 7, no. 21:1701272. PNNL-SA-125834. doi:10.1002/aenm.201701272


  • Cheng Y., L. Luo, L. Zhong, J. Chen, B. Li, W. Wang, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 22:13673-13677. PNNL-SA-116513. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Deng X., M.Y. Hu, X. Wei, W. Wang, K.T. Mueller, Z. Chen, and J.Z. Hu. 2016. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Solvation Structures of a High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 308. PNNL-SA-113232. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005
  • Duan W., V.S. Vemuri, J.D. Milshtein, S. Laramie, R.D. Dmello, J. Huang, and L. Zhang, et al. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4, no. 15:5448-5456. PNNL-SA-115896. doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Estevez L., D.M. Reed, Z. Nie, A.M. Schwarz, M.I. Nandasiri, J.P. Kizewski, and W. Wang, et al. 2016. "Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9, no. 12:1455-1461. PNNL-SA-113820. doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
  • Han K., N. Rajput, M. Vijayakumar, X. Wei, W. Wang, J.Z. Hu, and K.A. Persson, et al. 2016. "Preferential Solvation of an Asymmetric Redox Molecule." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 49:27834-27839. PNNL-SA-113547. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b09114
  • Huang J., B. Pan, W. Duan, X. Wei, R.S. Assary, L. Su, and F. Brushett, et al. 2016. "The lightest organic radical cation for charge storage in redox flow batteries." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-114980. doi:10.1038/srep32102
  • Li B., J. Liu, Z. Nie, W. Wang, D.M. Reed, J. Liu, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16, no. 7:4335-4340. PNNL-SA-116994. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
  • Liu T.L., X. Wei, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2016. "A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 3:Article No. 1501449. PNNL-SA-110796. doi:10.1002/aenm.201501449
  • Park M., J. Ryu, W. Wang, and J. Cho. 2016. "Material design and engineering of next-generation flow-battery technologies." Nature Reviews: Materials 2. PNNL-SA-119674. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2016.80
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B.J. Koeppel, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2016. "Stack Developments in a kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 1:A5211-A5219. PNNL-SA-112057. doi:10.1149/2.0281601jes
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B.J. Koeppel, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Performance of a Low Cost Interdigitated Flow Design on a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 306. PNNL-SA-112126. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.089
  • Vijayakumar M., Q. Luo, R.B. Lloyd, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 50:34327-34334. PNNL-SA-115747. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744
  • Wang W., and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Energy storage: Redox Flow Batteries Go Organic." Nature Chemistry 8, no. 3:204-206. PNNL-SA-115256. doi:10.1038/nchem.2466
  • Wei X., W. Duan, J. Huang, L. Zhang, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and W. Xu, et al. 2016. "A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." ACS Energy Letters 1, no. 4:705-711. PNNL-SA-112127. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00255
  • Xiao L., Y. Cao, W.A. Henderson, M.L. Sushko, Y. Shao, J. Xiao, and W. Wang, et al. 2016. "Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries." Nano Energy 19. PNNL-SA-115004. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.034


  • Cosimbescu L., X. Wei, M. Vijayakumar, W. Xu, M.L. Helm, S.D. Burton, and C.M. Sorensen, et al. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5. PNNL-SA-104406. doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Crawford A.J., V.V. Viswanathan, D.E. Stephenson, W. Wang, E.C. Thomsen, D.M. Reed, and B. Li, et al. 2015. "Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model." Journal of Power Sources 293. PNNL-SA-108277. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.05.066
  • Deng X., M.Y. Hu, X. Wei, W. Wang, Z. Chen, J. Liu, and J.Z. Hu. 2015. "Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 285. PNNL-SA-105759. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.091
  • Li B., Z. Nie, M. Vijayakumar, G. Li, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-103966. doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B. Li, X. Wei, and B.J. Koeppel, et al. 2015. "Performance of Nafion N115, Nafion NR-212, and Nafion NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 285. PNNL-SA-108089. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.099
  • Shao Y., Y. Cheng, W. Duan, W. Wang, Y. Lin, Y. Wang, and J. Liu. 2015. "Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: a Selected Review." ACS Catalysis 5, no. 12:7288-7298. PNNL-SA-112187. doi:10.1021/acscatal.5b01737
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, B. Li, X. Wei, Z. Nie, S. Thevuthasan, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3. PNNL-SA-108088. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Vijayakumar M., Z. Nie, E.D. Walter, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80, no. 2:428-437. PNNL-SA-102555. doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wei X., B. Li, and W. Wang. 2015. "Porous Polymeric Composite Separators for Redox Flow Batteries." Polymer Reviews 55, no. 2:247-272. PNNL-SA-103480. doi:10.1080/15583724.2015.1011276
  • Wei X., G. Xia, B.W. Kirby, E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, Z. Nie, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 1:A5150-A5153. PNNL-SA-93471. doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Wei X., L. Cosimbescu, W. Xu, J.Z. Hu, M. Vijayakumar, J. Feng, and M.Y. Hu, et al. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5, no. 1:Article No. 1400678. PNNL-SA-97506. doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Wei X., W. Xu, J. Huang, L. Zhang, E.D. Walter, C.W. Lawrence, and M. Vijayakumar, et al. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127, no. 30:8808-8811. PNNL-SA-107928. doi:10.1002/ange.201501443


  • Han K., N. Rajput, X. Wei, W. Wang, J.Z. Hu, K.A. Persson, and K.T. Mueller. 2014. "Diffusional Motion of Redox Centers in Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Chemical Physics 141, no. 10:104509. PNNL-SA-103453. doi:10.1063/1.4894481
  • Ji L., M. Gu, Y. Shao, X. Li, M.H. Engelhard, B.W. Arey, and W. Wang, et al. 2014. "Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage." Advanced Materials 26, no. 18:2901-2908. PNNL-SA-98915. doi:10.1002/adma.201304962
  • Li B., M. Gu, Z. Nie, X. Wei, C.M. Wang, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 14, no. 1:158-165. PNNL-SA-98433. doi:10.1021/nl403674a
  • Li B., Q. Luo, X. Wei, Z. Nie, E.C. Thomsen, B. Chen, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2014. "Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery." ChemSusChem 7, no. 2:577-584. PNNL-SA-94959. doi:10.1002/cssc.201300706
  • Viswanathan V.V., A.J. Crawford, D.E. Stephenson, S. Kim, W. Wang, B. Li, and G.W. Coffey, et al. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247. PNNL-SA-91534. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023
  • Wang W., X. Wei, D. Choi, X. Lu, G. Yang, and C. Sun. 2014. "Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage." In Advances in Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage, edited by C Menictas, M Skyllas-Kazacos and LT Mariana. 3-28. Waltham, Massachusetts:Woodhead Publishing. PNNL-SA-100840.
  • Wei X., W. Xu, M. Vijayakumar, L. Cosimbescu, T.L. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26, no. 45:7649-7653. PNNL-SA-105126. doi:10.1002/adma.201403746


  • Kim S., E.C. Thomsen, G. Xia, Z. Nie, J. Bao, K.P. Recknagle, and W. Wang, et al. 2013. "1 kW / 1kWh Advanced Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Utilizing Mixed Acid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 237. PNNL-SA-92689. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.045
  • Li B., L. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B. Chen, X. Wei, and Q. Luo, et al. 2013. "Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization." Journal of Power Sources 229. PNNL-SA-89815. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.119
  • Li B., M. Gu, Z. Nie, Y. Shao, Q. Luo, X. Wei, and X. Li, et al. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13, no. 3:1330-1335. PNNL-SA-92494. doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Luo Q., L. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and B. Chen, et al. 2013. "Capacity Decay and Remediation of Nafion-based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 6, no. 2:268-274. PNNL-SA-89997. doi:10.1002/cssc.201200730
  • Vijayakumar M., W. Wang, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241. PNNL-SA-95082. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072
  • Wang W., D. Choi, and Z. Yang. 2013. "Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 44A, no. 1 Supplement:21-25. PNNL-SA-74420. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4
  • Wang W., Q. Luo, B. Li, X. Wei, L. Li, and Z. Yang. 2013. "Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development." Advanced Functional Materials 23, no. 8:970-986. PNNL-SA-86016. doi:10.1002/adfm.201200694
  • Wei X., Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Nie, E. Miller, J. Chambers, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." ECS Transactions 45, no. 26:17-24. PNNL-SA-88565. doi:10.1149/04526.0017ecst
  • Wei X., Z. Nie, Q. Luo, B. Li, B. Chen, K.L. Simmons, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane." Advanced Energy Materials 3, no. 9:1215-1220. PNNL-SA-91588. doi:10.1002/aenm.201201112
  • Wei X., Z. Nie, Q. Luo, B. Li, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2013. "Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160, no. 8:A1215 - A1218. PNNL-SA-92548.
  • Xu W., X. Chen, W. Wang, D. Choi, F. Ding, J. Zheng, and Z. Nie, et al. 2013. "Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 236. PNNL-SA-91887. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.055


  • Cao Y., L. Xiao, M.L. Sushko, W. Wang, B. Schwenzer, J. Xiao, and Z. Nie, et al. 2012. "Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications." Nano Letters 12, no. 7:3783-3787. PNNL-SA-88364. doi:10.1021/nl3016957
  • Ding F., W. Xu, D. Choi, W. Wang, X. Li, M.H. Engelhard, and X. Chen, et al. 2012. "Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22, no. 25:12745-12751. PNNL-SA-85418. doi:10.1039/c2jm31015e
  • Li L., S. Kim, G. Xia, W. Wang, and Z. Yang. 2012. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage. PNNL-21174. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage
  • Li X., P. Meduri, X. Chen, W.N. Qi, M.H. Engelhard, W. Xu, and F. Ding, et al. 2012. "Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22, no. 22:11014-11017. PNNL-SA-85843. doi:10.1039/C2JM31286G
  • Luo Q., L. Li, Z. Nie, W. Wang, X. Wei, B. Li, and B. Chen, et al. 2012. "In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 218, no. 1:15-20. PNNL-SA-87264. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.066
  • Stephenson D.E., S. Kim, F. Chen, E.C. Thomsen, V.V. Viswanathan, W. Wang, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2012. "Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 159, no. 12:A1993-A2000. PNNL-SA-88363. doi:10.1149/2.052212jes
  • Wang W., L. Li, Z. Nie, B. Chen, Q. Luo, Y. Shao, and X. Wei, et al. 2012. "A New Hybrid Redox Flow Battery with Multiple Redox Couples." Journal of Power Sources 216. PNNL-SA-84238. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.032
  • Wang W., W. Xu, L. Cosimbescu, D. Choi, L. Li, and Z. Yang. 2012. "Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Chemical Communications 48, no. 53:6669-6671. PNNL-SA-87199. doi:10.1039/C2CC32466K
  • Wang W., Z. Nie, B. Chen, F. Chen, Q. Luo, X. Wei, and G. Xia, et al. 2012. "A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 2, no. 4:487-493. PNNL-SA-81184. doi:10.1002/aenm.201100527
  • Wei X., L. Li, Q. Luo, Z. Nie, W. Wang, B. Li, and G. Xia, et al. 2012. "Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 218, no. 1:39-45. PNNL-SA-86902. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.073
  • Xiao L., Y. Cao, J. Xiao, W. Wang, L. Kovarik, Z. Nie, and J. Liu. 2012. "High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications." Chemical Communications 48, no. 27:3321-3323. PNNL-SA-85851. doi:10.1039/C2CC17129E
  • Zhang J., W. Wang, J. Xiao, W. Xu, G.L. Graff, Z. Yang, and D. Choi, et al. 2012. "Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, New York:Springer. PNNL-SA-75702.


  • Cao Y., L. Xiao, W. Wang, D. Choi, Z. Nie, J. Yu, and L.V. Saraf, et al. 2011. "Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide Nanowires with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 23, no. 28:3155-3160. PNNL-SA-78702. doi:10.1002/adma.201100904
  • Choi D., J. Xiao, Y. Choi, J.S. Hardy, M. Vijayakumar, M.S. Bhuvaneswari, and J. Liu, et al. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4, no. 11:4560-4566. PNNL-SA-79713. doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Choi D., W. Wang, and Z. Yang. 2011. "Material Challenges and Perspectives." In Lithium Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies, edited by X Yuan, et al. 1-50. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press. PNNL-SA-76721.
  • Li L., S. Kim, W. Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Z. Nie, B. Chen, and J. Zhang, et al. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1, no. 3:394-400. PNNL-SA-75871.
  • Wang W., S. Kim, B. Chen, Z. Nie, J. Zhang, G. Xia, and L. Li, et al. 2011. "A New Redox Flow Battery Using Fe/V Redox Couples in Chloride Supporting Electrolyte." Energy & Environmental Science 4, no. 10:4068-4073. PNNL-SA-76658. doi:10.1039/C0EE00765J
  • Zhang J., L. Li, Z. Nie, B. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, S. Kim, and W. Wang, et al. 2011. "Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41, no. 10 - Special Issue S1:1215-1221. PNNL-SA-76986. doi:10.1007/s10800-011-0312-1


  • Choi D., D. Wang, I. Bae, J. Xiao, Z. Nie, W. Wang, and V.V. Viswanathan, et al. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10, no. 8:2799-2805. PNNL-SA-70835. doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Xiao J., W. Xu, D. Wang, D. Choi, W. Wang, X. Li, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157, no. 10:A1047-A1051. PNNL-SA-72047. doi:10.1149/1.3464767
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