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Energy Materials Group

Xiaoliang Wei

Xiaoliang Wei

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Xiaoliang Wei joined PNNL in 2011 as a post-doctorate research associate. He was hired on as a staff scientist in 2013 in the Energy Processes and Materials Division at PNNL. His research experiences include electrochemical energy storage with the emphasis on stationary batteries. The current focus of his work is to develop novel materials and systems for redox flow batteries and rechargeable zinc batteries. He especially focuses on development of organic redox species for aqueous and non-aqueous flow chemistries, and cathode materials for zinc batteries. Dr. Wei has authored and co-authored more than 40 peer-reviewed journal publications, 7 patent applications, 1 book chapter, and more than 20 conference presentations. Before joining PNNL, Dr. Wei was a Postdoctoral Research Associate at Case Western Reserve University where he investigated polymer nanocomposites for dielectric energy storage and optical data storage. Dr. Wei’s doctoral work studied self-assembled monolayers for nanoelectronics applications by using scanning tunneling microscopy.

Research Interests

  • Redox flow batteries
  • Rechargeable zinc batteries
  • Materials science and system engineering
  • Development of electroactive materials, electrolytes, electrodes, membranes
  • Degradation mechanisms.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Chemistry, Brown University, USA, September 2009
  • B. S, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, China, July 2003

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of The Electrochemical Society
  • Editorial Board Member for Scientific Reports and Cogent Engineering
  • Guest Editor for Special Issue of "Redox Flow Batteries" in Energies

Awards and Recognitions

  • PNNL, Pathway to Excellence Patent Awards
  • PNNL, Ronald L. Brodzinski Early Career Exceptional Achievement Award, 2016
  • PNNL, Exceptional Contribution Award, 2015
  • PNNL, Of-The-Year (OTY) Project Team Award, 2012

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Duan W, J Huang, JA Kowalski, IA Shkrob, V Murugesan, ED Walter, B Pan, Z Yang, JD Milshtein, B Li, C Liao, Z Zhang, W Wang, J Liu, JS Moore, F Brushett, L Zhang, and X Wei. 2017. ""Wine-Dark Sea" in An Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability." ACS Energy Letters 2(5):1156-1161.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00261
  • Duan W, VRS Vemuri, D Hu, Z Yang, and X Wei. 2017. "A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluation and State of Charge Diagnostics of A Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Visualized Experiments (120):Video No. e55171.  doi:10.3791/55171
  • Wei X, W Pan, W Duan, AM Hollas, Z Yang, B Li, Z Nie, J Liu, DM Reed, W Wang, and VL Sprenkle. 2017. "Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges." ACS Energy Letters 2(9):2187-2204.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00650
  • Zhang J, Z Yang, IA Shkrob, RS Assary, SO Tung, B Silcox, W Duan, J Zhang, CC Su, B Hu, B Pan, C Liao, Z Zhang, W Wang, LA Curtiss, L Thompson, X Wei, and L Zhang. 2017. "Annulated dialkoxybenzenes as catholyte materials for nonaqueous redox flow batteries: achieving high chemical stability through bicyclic substitution." Advanced Energy Materials 7(21):1701272.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201701272


  • Deng X, MY Hu, X Wei, W Wang, KT Mueller, Z Chen, and JZ Hu. 2016. "Nuclear Magnetic resonance studies of the solvation of a high-performance nonaqueous redox flow electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 308:172-179.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005
  • Deng X, MY Hu, X Wei, W Wang, KT Mueller, Z Chen, and JZ Hu. 2016. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Solvation Structures of a High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 308:172-179.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005
  • Duan W, VRS Vemuri, JD Milshtein, S Laramie, RD Dmello, J Huang, L Zhang, D Hu, M Vijayakumar, W Wang, J Liu, RE Darling, L Thompson, KC Smith, JS Moore, F Brushett, and X Wei. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4(15):5448-5456.  doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Han KS, NN Rajput, M Vijayakumar, X Wei, W Wang, JZ Hu, KA Persson, and KT Mueller. 2016. "Preferential Solvation of an Asymmetric Redox Molecule." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120(49):27834-27839.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b09114
  • Huang J, B Pan, W Duan, X Wei, RS Assary, L Su, F Brushett, L Cheng, C Liao, MS Ferrandon, W Wang, Z Zhang, AK Burrell, LA Curtiss, IA Shkrob, JS Moore, and L Zhang. 2016. "The lightest organic radical cation for charge storage in redox flow batteries." Scientific Reports 6:Article No. 32102.  doi:10.1038/srep32102
  • Liu TL, X Wei, Z Nie, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2016. "A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 6(3):Article No. 1501449.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201501449
  • Vijayakumar M, Q Luo, RB Lloyd, Z Nie, X Wei, B Li, VL Sprenkle, JD Londono, M Unlu, and W Wang. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(50):34327-34334.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744
  • Wei X, W Duan, J Huang, L Zhang, B Li, DM Reed, W Xu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2016. "A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." ACS Energy Letters 1(4):705-711.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00255


  • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, W Wang, Z Nie, B Li, X Wei, BJ Koeppel, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Performance of Nafion® N115, Nafion® NR-212, and Nafion® NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 285:425-430.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.099
  • Wei X, B Li, and W Wang. 2015. "Porous Polymeric Composite Separators for Redox Flow Batteries." Polymer Reviews 55(2):247-272.  doi:10.1080/15583724.2015.1011276
  • Wei X, G Xia, BW Kirby, EC Thomsen, B Li, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5150-A5153.  doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Cosimbescu L, X Wei, M Vijayakumar, W Xu, ML Helm, SD Burton, CM Sorensen, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5:14117.  doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Deng X, MY Hu, X Wei, W Wang, Z Chen, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2015. "Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 285:146-155.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.091
  • Pan H, X Wei, WA Henderson, Y Shao, J Chen, P Bhattacharya, J Xiao, and J Liu. 2015. "On the way toward understanding solution chemistry of lithium polysulfides for high energy Li-S redox flow batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1500113.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201500113
  • Vijayakumar M, N Govind, B Li, X Wei, Z Nie, S Thevuthasan, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 10.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Wei X, W Xu, J Huang, L Zhang, ED Walter, CW Lawrence, M Vijayakumar, WA Henderson, TL Liu, L Cosimbescu, B Li, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127(30):8808-8811.  doi:10.1002/ange.201501443


  • Wei X, W Xu, M Vijayakumar, L Cosimbescu, TL Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26(45):7649-7653.  doi: 10.1002/adma.201403746
  • Han KS, NN Rajput, X Wei, W Wang, JZ Hu, KA Persson, and KT Mueller. 2014. "Diffusional Motion of Redox Centers in Carbonate Electrolytes ." Journal of Chemical Physics 141(10):104509.  doi:10.1063/1.4894481
  • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, X Wei, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ." Nano Letters 14(1):158-165.  doi:10.1021/nl403674a
  • Li B, Q Luo, X Wei, Z Nie, EC Thomsen, B Chen, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery." ChemSusChem 7(2):577-584.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300706
  • Wang W, X Wei, D Choi, X Lu, G Yang, and C Sun. 2014. "Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage." Chapter 1 in Advances in Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage, ed. C Menictas, M Skyllas-Kazacos and LT Mariana, pp. 3-28.  Woodhead Publishing, Waltham, MA. 


  • Wei X, Q Luo, B Li, Z Nie, E Miller, J Chambers, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." ECS Transactions 45(26):17-24.  doi:10.1149/04526.0017ecst
  • Wei X, Z Nie, Q Luo, B Li, B Chen, KL Simmons, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane." Advanced Energy Materials 3(9):1215-1220.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201201112
  • Wei X, Z Nie, Q Luo, B Li, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(8):A1215 - A1218. 
  • Li B, L Li, W Wang, Z Nie, B Chen, X Wei, Q Luo, Z Yang, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization." Journal of Power Sources 229:1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.119
  • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, Y Shao, Q Luo, X Wei, X Li, J Xiao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13(3):1330-1335.  doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Luo Q, L Li, W Wang, Z Nie, X Wei, B Li, B Chen, Z Yang, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Capacity Decay and Remediation of Nafion-based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 6(2):268-274.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201200730
  • Wang W, Q Luo, B Li, X Wei, L Li, and Z Yang. 2013. "Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):970-986.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200694


  • Wei X, L Li, Q Luo, Z Nie, W Wang, B Li, G Xia, E Miller, J Chambers, and Z Yang. 2012. "Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 218(1):39-45.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.073
  • Wei X, W Tong, V Fidler, and MB Zimmt. 2012. "Reactive Capture of Gold Nanoparticles by Strongly Physisorbed Monolayers on Graphite." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 387(1):221-227.  doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2012.07.058
  • Fujimoto CH, S Kim, R Stains, X Wei, L Li, and Z Yang. 2012. "Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s." Electrochemistry Communications 20:48-21.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2012.03.037
  • Luo Q, L Li, Z Nie, W Wang, X Wei, B Li, B Chen, and Z Yang. 2012. "In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 218(1):15-20.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.066
  • Wang W, L Li, Z Nie, B Chen, Q Luo, Y Shao, X Wei, F Chen, G Xia, and Z Yang. 2012. "A New Hybrid Redox Flow Battery with Multiple Redox Couples." Journal of Power Sources 216:99-103.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.032
  • Wang W, Z Nie, B Chen, F Chen, Q Luo, X Wei, G Xia, M Skyllas-Kazacos, L Li, and Z Yang. 2012. "A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 2(4):487-493.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201100527

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