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Energy Materials Group

Xiaolin Li

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

PNNL Patents

PNNL Publications


  • Fu S, J Song, C Zhu, GH Xu, K Amine, CJ Sun, X Li, MH Engelhard, D Du, and Y Lin. 2018. "Ultrafine and Highly Disordered Ni2Fe1 Nanofoams Enabled Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Electrolyte." Nano Energy 44:319-326.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.12.010
  • Mishra K, J Zheng, RL Patel, L Estevez, H Jia, L Luo, PZ El-Khoury, X Li, XD Zhou, and J Zhang. 2018. "High Performance Porous Si@C Anodes Synthesized by Low Temperature Aluminothermic Reaction." Electrochimica Acta 269:509-516.  doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2018.02.166


  • Fu S, C Zhu, J Song, MH Engelhard, X Li, P Zhang, H Xia, D Du, and Y Lin. 2017. "Template-Directed Synthesis of Nitrogen- and Sulfur- Codoped Carbon Nanowires Aerogels with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Performance for Oxygen Reduction." Nano Research 10(6):1888-1895.  doi:10.1007/s12274-016-1371-8
  • Liu B, W Xu, J Zheng, P Yan, ED Walter, NG Isern, ME Bowden, MH Engelhard, S Kim, J Read, BDG Adams, X Li, J Cho, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "Temperature dependence of the oxygen reduction mechanism in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries." ACS Energy Letters 2:2525-2530.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00845
  • Song J, P Yan, L Luo, X Qi, X Rong, J Zheng, B Xiao, S Feng, C Wang, YS Hu, Y Lin, VL Sprenkle, and X Li. 2017. "Yolk-Shell Structured Sb@C Anodes for High Energy Na-ion Batteries." Nano Letters 40:504-511.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.08.051
  • Soto FA, P Yan, MH Engelhard, A Marzouk, C Wang, GL Xu, Z Chen, K Amine, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, F El-Mellouhi, PB Balbuena, and X Li. 2017. "Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon." Advanced Materials 29(18):Article No. 1606860.  doi:10.1002/adma.201606860
  • Zhu C, S Fu, B Xu, J Song, Q Shi, MH Engelhard, X Li, SP Beckman, J Sun, D Du, and Y Lin. 2017. "Sugar Blowing-induced Porous Cobalt Phosphide/nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanostructures With Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation Performance Towards Water And Other Small Molecules." Small 13(33):Article No. 1700796.  doi:10.1002/smll.201700796
  • Zhu C, S Fu, J Song, Q Shi, D Su, MH Engelhard, X Li, D Xiao, D Li, L Estevez, D Du, and Y Lin. 2017. "Self-Assembled Fe-N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Aerogels with Single-Atom Catalysis Feature as Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts." Small 13(15):Article No. 1603407.  doi:10.1002/smll.201603407


  • Cao R, K Mushra, X Li, J Qian, MH Engelhard, ME Bowden, KS Han, KT Mueller, WA Henderson, and J Zhang. 2016. "Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries." Nano Energy 30:825-830.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.09.013
  • Choi D, X Li, WA Henderson, Q Huang, SK Nune, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "LiCoPO4 Cathode from a CoHPO4xH2O Nanoplate Precursor for High Voltage Li-ion Batteries ." Heliyon 2(2):, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00081
  • Fu S, C Zhu, J Song, MH Engelhard, X Li, D Du, and Y Lin. 2016. "Highly Ordered Mesoporous Bimetallic Phosphides as Efficient Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts." ACS Energy Letters 4(1):792-796.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00408
  • Jeong S, X Li, J Zheng, P Yan, R Cao, HJ Jung, CM Wang, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 329:323-329.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.08.089
  • Li X, P Yan, MH Engelhard, AJ Crawford, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, J Liu, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27:664-672.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030
  • Pan H, Y Shao, P Yan, Y Cheng, KS Han, Z Nie, CM Wang, J Yang, X Li, P Bhattacharya, KT Mueller, and J Liu. 2016. "Reversible aqueous zinc/manganese oxide energy storage from conversion reactions." Nature Energy 1(5):Article No. 16039.  doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.39
  • Shen F, W Luo, J Dai, Y Yao, M Zhu, E Hitz, Y Tang, Y Chen, VL Sprenkle, X Li, and L Hu. 2016. "Ultra-thick, Low-Tortuosity, and Mesoporous Wood Carbon Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 6(14):Article No. 1600377.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201600377


  • Chen X, X Li, D Mei, J Feng, MY Hu, JZ Hu, MH Engelhard, J Zheng, W Xu, J Xiao, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Reduction Mechanism of Fluoroethylene Carbonate for Stable Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Film on Silicon Anode." ChemSusChem 7(2):549-554.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300770
  • Huang C, J Xiao, Y Shao, J Zheng, WD Bennett, D Lu, LV Saraf, MH Engelhard, L Ji, J Zhang, X Li, GL Graff, and J Liu. 2014. "Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 3015.  doi:10.1038/ncomms4015
  • Ji L, M Gu, Y Shao, X Li, MH Engelhard, BW Arey, W Wang, Z Nie, J Xiao, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage." Advanced Materials 26(18):2901-2908.  doi:10.1002/adma.201304962
  • Li X, M Gu, SY Hu, R Kennard, P Yan, X Chen, CM Wang, MJ Sailor, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4105.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5105
  • Shao Y, M Gu, X Li, Z Nie, P Zuo, G Li, TL Liu, J Xiao, Y Cheng, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2014. "Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(1):255-260.  doi:10.1021/nl403874y
  • Song J, Z Yu, M Gordin, S Hu, R Yi, D Tang, T Walter, M Regula, D Choi, X Li, A Manivannan, and D Wang. 2014. "Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 14(11):6329-6335.  doi:10.1021/nl502759z
  • Zhou J, Y Hu, X Li, CM Wang, and L Zuin. 2014. "Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study." RSC Advances 4(39):20226-20229.  doi:10.1039/c4ra01332h


  • Chen B, WN Qi, X Li, C Lei, and J Liu. 2013. "Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support." Small 9(13):2228-2232.  doi:10.1002/smll.201202409
  • Lei C, B Chen, X Li, WN Qi, and J Liu. 2013. "Non-destructively shattered mesoporous silica for protein drug delivery." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 175:157-160.  doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2013.03.022
  • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, Y Shao, Q Luo, X Wei, X Li, J Xiao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13(3):1330-1335.  doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Liu J, J Zhang, Z Yang, JP Lemmon, CH Imhoff, GL Graff, L Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, VL Sprenkle, X Li, Y Shao, and B Schwenzer. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):929-946.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690
  • Xiao J, J Zheng, X Li, Y Shao, and J Zhang. 2013. "Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries." Nanotechnology 24(42):Article No. 424004.  doi:10.1088/0957-4484/24/42/424004
  • Zhan H, J Xiao, Z Nie, X Li, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2013. "Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations." Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering 2(2):151-159.  doi:10.1016/j.coche.2013.03.007


  • Li X, WN Qi, D Mei, ML Sushko, IA Aksay, and J Liu. 2012. "Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites." Advanced Materials 24(37):5136-5141.  doi:10.1002/adma.201202189
  • Chen X, X Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, Y Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2012. "Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 12(8):4124-4130.  doi:10.1021/nl301657y
  • Ding F, W Xu, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, MH Engelhard, X Chen, Z Yang, and J Zhang. 2012. "Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(25):12745-12751.  doi:10.1039/c2jm31015e
  • Gu M, Y Li, X Li, SY Hu, X Zhang, W Xu, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, J Zhang, J Liu, and CM Wang. 2012. "In-Situ TEM Study Of Lithiation Behavior Of Silicon Nanoparticles Attached To And Embedded In A Carbon Matrix ." ACS Nano 6(9):8439-8447.  doi:10.1021/nn303312m
  • Li J, K Zhu, J Shang, D Wang, Z Nie, R Guo, C Liu, Z Wang, X Li, and J Liu. 2012. "Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction." Separation Science and Technology 47(10):1507-1513. 
  • Li X, P Meduri, X Chen, WN Qi, MH Engelhard, W Xu, F Ding, J Xiao, W Wang, CM Wang, J Zhang, and J Liu. 2012. "Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(22):11014-11017.  doi:10.1039/C2JM31286G
  • Wang CM, X Li, Z Wang, W Xu, J Liu, F Gao, L Kovarik, J Zhang, J Howe, DJ Burton, Z Liu, X Xiao, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2012. "In Situ TEM Investigation of Congruent Phase Transition and Structural Evolution of Nanostructured Silicon/Carbon Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 12(3):1624-1632.  doi:10.1021/nl204559u
  • Wen Q, X Li, B Chen, P Yao, C Lei, and J Liu. 2012. "Intramesoporous Silica Structure Differentiating Protein Loading Density." Materials Letters 75:102-106.  doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2012.01.128
  • Yu Y, B Chen, WN Qi, X Li, Y Shin, C Lei, and J Liu. 2012. "Enzymatic Conversion of CO2 to Bicarbonate in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 153:166-170.  doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2011.12.005
  • Zhang J, W Wang, J Xiao, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Yang, D Choi, X Li, D Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology.  Springer, New York, NY. 


  • Cao Y, X Li, IA Aksay, JP Lemmon, Z Nie, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2011. "Sandwich-Type Functionalized Graphene Sheet-Sulfur Nanocomposite for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(17):7660-7665.  doi:10.1039/C0CP02477E
  • Li X, Y Cao, WN Qi, LV Saraf, J Xiao, Z Nie, J Mietek, J Zhang, B Schwenzer, and J Liu. 2011. "Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium-sulfur battery applications." Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(41):16603-16610.  doi:10.1039/C1JM12979A
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e


  • Li J, J Liu, D Wang, R Guo, X Li, and WN Qi. 2010. "Interfacially Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Spheres with Radially Oriented Pore Structures." Langmuir 26(14):12267-12272.  doi:10.1021/la101225j
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(10):A1047-A1051.  doi:10.1149/1.3464767

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